The Physical Evidence Of ‘Unwalling’ of Jerusalem Proves Zechariah’s Prophecy Coming to Life

“Run speak to this young man saying: Yerushalayim shall be inhabited without walls for the multitude of men and cattle therein. For I saith Hashem will be unto her a wall of fire round about and I will be the glory in the midst of her.” Zechariah 2:8 (The Israel Bible™)

A view of the walls of Jerusalem and the Temple Mount. (Shutterstock)

Jerusalem, circumscribed by walls since it was a tiny hamlet inhabited by Jebusites thousands of years ago, is finally fulfilling its prophesied destiny as an unwalled city – a reality which seemed almost impossible until very modern times.

Numerous ancient walls have been discovered by archaeologists plumbing the depths of Jerusalem’s past, including a 7-meter-wide wall from the First Temple period which was found beneath the modern Jewish quarter. The massive wall was built to shore up Jerusalem’s northern defenses in view of the impending invasion by Assyrian king Sennacherib, but it is also testimony to the strategy required to defend a town topographically inferior to the mountains surrounding it.

It would have been unthinkable at this stage to envisage a Jerusalem without walls. David, king of Israel, prayed that God maintain the walls of his capital, asking:

Do good in Thy favour unto Tzion; build Thou the walls of Yerushalayim. (Psalms 51:20)

The walls of Jerusalem were destroyed by the Babylonians during the destruction of the First Temple, but immediately after the Jews returned to Zion, their initial task was to erect walls around Jerusalem. Nehemiah describes in extended detail the building of this wall (Nehemiah 3:1-32) as well as the attempts by the Samaritans to belittle the wall and harm its construction. (3:33-35).

These attempts led to a remarkable feat of construction being attempted by Nehemiah, with workers holding their hammers and chisels in one hand and their swords in the other to prevent the enemy from taking advantage of the unfinished wall.

It is against this backdrop that the prophet Zechariah made the remarkable prophecy that Jerusalem would one day be unwalled.

Yerushalayim shall be inhabited without walls for the multitude of men and cattle therein. For I saith Hashem will be unto her a wall of fire round about and I will be the glory in the midst of her. Zechariah 2:8-9

With such a struggle going on to complete the construction of the wall and its necessity so evident, it seemed utterly far-fetched to imagine a city being inhabited in a defendable manner without walls surrounding it. Indeed, even in subsequent eras Jerusalem remained a walled city and the wall’s status was halakhically (adhering to Jewish law) defined by the requirement to eat certain tithes and sacrifices within the walls of Jerusalem.

At the end of the Second Temple period, with Jerusalem growing and sprawling further northwards beyond the original walls, a second fortified wall was built to the north, containing 14 towers according to the historian Josephus, as well as a moat in front of it. Later, during the life of Jesus, a third wall was built stretching the city even further north.

In subsequent generations, Jerusalem was renamed, repopulated and denuded of its walls, but no Jews were allowed to enter the city by the Roman conquerors. The walls of Jerusalem were erected once again later in a vain attempt to protect against Sassanian, Muslim and Crusader invaders but Jerusalem did not grow beyond its borders even as it gained influence in three religions.

Suleiman the Magnificent restored the walls of Jerusalem in 1536 and they have stood the test of time, but it was only 150 years ago that Jews seriously began contemplating establishing neighborhoods and communities outside the walls.

It was the dream of one Jew, Joseph Rivlin, to be the architect of the fulfillment of Zechariah’s prophecy. Rivlin, a scion of the establishers of the Ashkenazic community in Jerusalem, wished not only to escape the crowded, squalid living conditions in the Old City but also to be surrounded by “the walls of fire” envisaged by Zachariah.

He was a practical dreamer and set about establishing the Nahalat Shiva neighborhood together with six other friends. The only problem was that none of those friends were willing to live in the neighborhood. With armed robbers and wild animals abounding and no walls of fire visible, Rivlin was the sole brave soul who ventured to move there.

Even his wife refused to join him there, and Rivlin led a solitary existence outside the walls for two years and eight months, suffering from frequent attacks by marauders until others finally racked up the courage to join him.

Rivlin went on to found a total of 13 neighborhoods outside the walls, until he earned himself the Yiddish nickname “Shtetlmacher”, or Town-Maker. He died impoverished, unable to pay even the doctor who treated him, but his legacy as the harbinger of Zachariah’s prophecy lives on in modern Jerusalem

Today, in a clear fulfillment of Zechariah’s unlikely prophecy, just 5 percent of Jerusalem’s 800,000 population live today within the walls, while the other 95 percent are spread over a vast municipal area. While Zechariah’s “wall of fire” is not visible to the naked eye, few believers could deny that the modern, unwalled Jerusalem, simply by virtue of its blessed continuance, is protected by Divine grace.

Incredible Bible Verses Match Hebrew Years in Astonishing Prophetic Countdown

“For the Lord GOD will do nothing but He revealeth His counsel unto His servants the prophets.” Amos 3:7 (The Israel Bible™)

A numeric method of matching Bible verses to Hebrew years has led a prominent rabbi in Jerusalem to the discovery that there is a direct correlation between the two which could pinpoint the deadline for the messiah.

Rabbi Ephraim Sprecher, Dean of Students at the Diaspora Yeshiva and a noted lecturer, recently revealed an amazing method of prophecy that can be accessed by simply reading the Bible. Rabbi Sprecher stated that according to Kabbalah, Jewish esoteric learning, every year has a corresponding verse in the Torah. According to Rabbi Sprecher, all that is required to find the verse that describes a particular year, whether it is in the past or the future, is to count verses from the beginning of Genesis until the number of verses equals the Hebrew calendar year.

Rabbi Sprecher explained that this is one of the reasons scribes who write Torah scrolls are called ‘Soferim’, which literally means ‘counters’. Handwriting the sacred scrolls, Torah scribes count the letters and the spaces. With remarkable precision, Rabbi Sprecher noted that there are 304,805 letters in the Torah, 79,847 words, and 5,845 verses. He believes that the year correlating to the final verse in the Bible will signal the End-of-Days, quite literally.

“What that means is that the Moshiach (messiah) must come by the year 5845, since that is the year we run out of verses,” he explained. “All we have to do is hang on for another 68 years.”

The rabbi gave an incredible example of how this system works. World War II began in 1939, which was the Hebrew year 5699. The corresponding 5,699th verse in the Torah is disturbingly appropriate.

And that the whole land thereof is brimstone, and salt, and a burning, that it is not sown, nor beareth, nor any grass groweth therein…Deuteronomy 29:22

Rabbi Sprecher warned that the verses do not always reveal the entire truth. He explained that six years later, after World War II ended in 1945, people tried to understand the horrors they had just experienced. The war-torn world searched for the reasons behind the war and the Holocaust.

The secret things belong unto Hashem our God; but the things that are revealed belong unto us and to our children for ever, that we may do all the words of this law. Deuteronomy 29:28

“The Holocaust was too great, too enormous, for man to understand and ascribe a reason,” the rabbi explained.

The rabbi jumped ahead to 1948, the year Israel became a state. The Hebrew year was 5708 and the verse is fitting indeed.

That then Hashem thy God will turn thy captivity, and have compassion upon thee, and will return and gather thee from all the peoples, whither Hashem thy God hath scattered thee. Deuteronomy 30:3

In 1950, Israel was inundated with massive immigration. Over 150,000 Jews made aliyah (immigrated to Israel) in 24 months, the most intensive period ever of Jews returning to their homeland. The verse clearly reflects this.

And Hashem thy God will bring thee into the land which thy fathers possessed, and thou shalt possess it; and He will do thee good, and multiply thee above thy fathers.Deuteronomy 30:5

Another powerful example is the verse that correlates to 1968, the year after Israel’s miraculous victory in the Six Day War. The verse corresponding to the year 5727 describes the aftereffects of the Six Day War in 1967, the reality Israel was presented that year.

Hashem thy God, He will go over before thee; He will destroy these nations from before thee, and thou shalt dispossess them Deuteronomy 31:3

The verse describing to this year, 5777, is ominous indeed, written in language that does not bode well.

For a fire is kindled in My nostril, and burneth unto the depths of the nether-world, and devoureth the earth with her produce, and setteth ablaze the foundations of the mountains. Deuteronomy 32:22

This may describe the moment, in April, when for the first time the US military dropped its largest non-nuclear explosive device on Islamic State (ISIS) troops entrenched in tunnels dug into a mountain in Afghanistan. The Massive Ordnance Air Blast bomb (MOAB), nicknamed the Mother-of-All-Bombs, succeeded in “setting ablaze the foundation of the mountain”, killing all ISIS personnel.

Skeptics of Rabbi Sprecher’s method of understanding the Bible, need only wait a little more time. Whether or not the technique is accurate will become clear on September 30, 2084, when the verses run out.

Hasmonean Fortress of Machaerus Unearthed – on “Wrong” Side of Border [PHOTOS]

“Declare ye in Yehudah, and publish in Yerushalayim, and say: ‘Blow ye the horn in the land’; cry aloud and say: ‘Assemble yourselves, and let us go into the fortified cities.’” Jeremiah 4:5 (The Israel Bible™)

An artist’s view of Herod’s fortress Machaerus. (Courtesy of the Hungarian Archaeological Mission to Machaerus)

A Hungarian archaeological mission digging in the ruins of Machaerus, a fortress built by King Herod on the eastern shore of the Dead Sea located in modern Jordan, has discovered a large ritual bath which were likely constructed for the royal family’s use. The bath has 12 steeps, and was fed from a reserve pool when its water ran low.

In order to qualify as a means to purification, a ritual bath must have at least 40 se’ah, the equivalent of about 83 gallons of water.

An artist’s rendition of the royal bath in Machaerus. (Courtesy of the Hungarian Archaeological Mission to Machaerus)

The underground cistern, 54 ft deep, watered the baths and the fortress’ gardens.

The architecture of the bath is very similar to the baths and cisterns discovered in nearby Qumran (across the Dead Sea). It is situated 9 ft below the royal courtyard, and used to be covered by a vaulted stone roof, which was probably demolished by Lucilius Bassus’ 10th Roman legion. Bassus’ soldiers, on a campaign to repress the Great Jewish Revolt, in 71 attacked the Herodian fortress and the Jewish warriors who were hiding inside.

The archaeologists exposed collapsed walls, two massive column drums, and four Roman ballistae.

Two re-erected columns, Doric (right) and Ionic, in Machaerus. (Courtesy of the Hungarian Archaeological Mission to Machaerus)

The fortress of Machaerus was built by Hasmonean king Alexander Yanai (104-78 BCE), probably in 90 BCE. Its high, rocky vantage point was difficult to access, and it was used to spot and alerted Jerusalem about invaders from the east. It was part of a warning system that included several Hasmonean citadels, in one another’s line of sight.

Machaerus was destroyed by Pompey’s general Gabinius in 57 BCE, and later rebuilt by Herod in 30 BCE as a military base. Herod’s son, Herod Antipas, inherited the fortress (and the kingdom) in 4 BCE, until his demise in 39 CE. That’s time when, according to Christian belief, John the Baptist was imprisoned and beheaded at Machaerus.

The legend sets the event on Herod’s birthday (that’s Herod II), when the king’s daughter Salome danced before the king and his guests, and her father liked it so much that he promised to give her anything she desired, at which point Salome asked for—and received—the head of John the Baptist on a platter.

Herod’s fortress Machaerus on the eastern shore of the Dead Sea. (Hungarian Archaeological Mission to Machaerus)

The excavation of Machaerus began in 1968, by the American Archaeological Baptist Mission. The current excavations, by a Hungarian-Jordanian team led by Dr. Győző Vörös, have unearthed intact massive walls 30 ft high, revealing the majesty of the legendary Herodian architecture.

The Hungarian excavators also discovered dozens of Hasmonean and Roman coins, as well as 47 Aramaic broken pottery shards inscribed with Aramaic letters.

The line of sight view from the Temple Mount in Jerusalem to Machaerus (circled). (Courtesy of the Hungarian Archaeological Mission to Machaerus)

Machaerus was in direct line of sight of Jerusalem. The Talmud reports that the smoke of the sacrificial offerings could be seen rising from the altar of the temple in Jerusalem all the way to Machaerus, and Rabbi Elazar ben Delgai said: (Yuma 39:): “Father owned goats in the Machaerus mountains that would sneeze from the smell of the burn incense.”

The Forbidden Book Of Enoch

The Book of Enoch Tells The Nephilim Story
How Angels Became Corrupt, and How God Cleansed The Earth

Corrupted angels, the Nephilim, tremendous lifespans, a great deluge,

and ancient and advanced knowledge are a few of the topics

discussed in The Book of Enoch,

an ancient manuscript comprising various tales

narrated by Enoch, an attested Biblical figure

and grandfather of Noah who was in direct contact

with the Divine ‘Creator.’ 

The Ethiopian Bible (Orthodox Tewahedo Biblical Canon) is the oldest and most complete bible in existence. 

It’s comprised of 88 books, far surpassing the King James version which has only 66. The missing texts are not included in the conventional version of the Bible due to their challenging nature, although their authors have been attested and their work revered by early Christians.

The following are the missing scripts:

The Book of Enoch




…and various others that never made it to the current version of the bible.

Before being translated into Greek and Aramaic, the Ethiopian Bible was written in the extinct Ethiopian dialect known as Ge’ez, attesting it as the oldest holy scripture in the world, 800 years earlier before the King James version had surfaced.

Enoch was the great great grandfather of Noah, the seventh generation of humans after Adam. 

Because of his rightfulness, he was chosen by God to do his bidding and deliver his words, particularly after the Earth became corrupt due to the irresponsible deeds of a superior order of angels with striking human appearance, also referred to as ‘The Watchers’.

Enoch was the messenger of God, and the one to receive his knowledgeable words and spread them across the land.

In the end, he was taken by God into his kingdom, thus escaping his earthly demise that would sooner or later be upon him.

“After he became the father of Methuselah, Enoch walked faithfully with God 300 years and had other sons and daughters. Altogether, Enoch lived a total of 365 years.

Enoch walked faithfully with God; then he was no more, because God took him away.

By faith Enoch was taken from this life, so that he did not experience death:

‘He could not be found, because God had taken him away. For before he was taken, he was commended as one who pleased God’.”

Hebrews 11:5

It’s no wonder why the Book of Enoch hadn’t been included into the modern biblical version, since its content speaks of wicked angels who became found of mortal women and had mated with them, giving birth to the hybrid race of giant humanoids known throughout secular and Biblical history as the Nephilim.

“And it came to pass when the children of men had multiplied that in those days were born unto them beautiful and comely daughters.

And the angels, the children of the heaven, saw and lusted after them, and said to one another:

‘Come, let us choose us wives from among the children of men and beget us children.’

And Semjâzâ, who was their leader, said unto them:

‘I fear ye will not indeed agree to do this deed, and I alone shall have to pay the penalty of a great sin.’

And they all answered him and said:

‘Let us all swear an oath, and all bind ourselves by mutual imprecations not to abandon this plan but to do this thing.’

Then swore they all together and bound themselves by mutual imprecations upon it.”

Book of Enoch, Chapter 6 

And so the angels plunged from the heavens to take wives of their own choosing, defying the Creator’s judgment.

They numbered 200 and were led by their leaders,

“and these are the names of their leaders:

Samîazâz, their leader, Arâkîba, Râmêêl, Kôkabîêl, Tâmîêl, Râmîêl, Dânêl, Êzêqêêl, Barâqîjâl, Asâêl, Armârôs, Batârêl, Anânêl, Zaqîêl, Samsâpêêl, Satarêl, Tûrêl, Jômjâêl, Sariêl.

These are their chiefs of tens.”

When the angels descended upon the Earth, they started offering gifts of knowledge to both mortal men and women, thus defying the will of the creator of an unaltered race of humans with a will of their own.

In exchange, the angels demanded respect and adoration, but unaware they were of the chaos they had instituted.

“And Azâzêl taught men to make swords, and knives, and shields, and breastplates, and made known to them the metals of the earth and the art of working them, and bracelets, and ornaments, and the use of antimony, and the beautifying of the eyelids, and all kinds of costly stones, and all coloring tinctures. 

And there arose much godlessness, and they committed fornication, and they were led astray, and became corrupt in all their ways.

Semjâzâ taught enchantments, and root-cuttings,

‘Armârôs the resolving of enchantments, Barâqîjâl (taught) astrology, Kôkabêl the constellations, Êzêqêêl the knowledge of the clouds, Araqiêl the signs of the earth, Shamsiêl the signs of the sun, and Sariêl the course of the moon.

And as men perished, they cried, and their cry went up to heaven’…”

All living creatures became impended in one way or another by the new order of things. 

The angels didn’t realize that humans were too unripe and gullible to be taught so much knowledge at once.

As a consequence, the Earth became reddened from the blood of her creatures, and all living beings then became prone to divine cleansing.

“And all the others together with them took unto themselves wives, and each chose for himself one, and they began to go in unto them and to defile themselves with them, and they taught them charms and enchantments, and the cutting of roots, and made them acquainted with plants. 

And they became pregnant, and they bare great giants, whose height was three thousand ells: Who consumed all the acquisitions of men.

And when men could no longer sustain them, the giants turned against them and devoured mankind. And they began to sin against birds, and beasts, and reptiles, and fish, and to devour one another’s flesh, and drink the blood.

Then the earth laid accusation against lawless ones.”

The conception of the Nephilim was the first ordeal humans had to face, as there was no way to overcome the needs of those supersized humanoids. 

Intervening into the natural order of things had infuriated The Creator, so ‘The Watchers’ and all that had been corrupted were about to taste retribution.

“And destroy all the spirits of the reprobate and the children of the Watchers, because they have wronged mankind. 

Destroy all wrong from the face of the earth and let every evil work come to an end: and let the plant of righteousness and truth appear: and it shall prove a blessing; the works of righteousness and truth’ shall be planted in truth and joy for evermore.”

“And cleanse thou the earth from all oppression, and from all unrighteousness, and from all sin, and from all godlessness: and all the uncleanness that is wrought upon the earth destroy from off the earth. 

And all the children of men shall become righteous, and all nations shall offer adoration and shall praise Me, and all shall worship Me. 

And the earth shall be cleansed from all defilement, and from all sin, and from all punishment, and from all torment, and I will never again send (them) upon it from generation to generation and for ever.”

Needless to say that the global demise took the form of a great flood, and Noah was informed of this through the ascribed words of his forefather Enoch, and was allowed to perpetuate the human species, as well as preserve countless other wildlife.

“Then said the Most High, the Holy and Great One spake, and sent Uriel to the son of Lamech, and said to him:

‘Go to Noah and tell him in my name “Hide thyself!” and reveal to him the end that is approaching: that the whole earth will be destroyed, and a deluge is about to come upon the whole earth, and will destroy all that is on it.

And now instruct him that he may escape and his seed may be preserved for all the generations of the world’.”

Although some may find it hard to believe, the great flood had been scheduled long before Noah came to be, and it was his great great grandfather that had spread the divine word.

The cataclysm was inevitable, as prior to that moment in time inhabitants of the Earth became corrupted and could no longer live in peace.

The Book of Enoch tells many controversial stories of a time in a way similar to what we experience today, but with some major differences. Before the great deluge, humans had tremendous lifespans, fact attested by the Sumerian King List and the Egyptian Pharaoh’s timeline.

Although historians still consider this time frame in human history as unproved and fictional, there are numerous accounts speaking of those days when “gods walked among men,” when mythological creatures were not just a figment of imagination, and 100 years of life marked only the beginning of ones journey.

Today, it seems that our remote history is either not allowed to surface because it would turn the instituted order to bits, or because that cycle of human history was never meant to be known, for some really intriguing reason.

How much this seclusion is benefiting mankind we can only speculate, but I believe that such insight would offer us relief, and that’s exactly what we need to become at peace with ourselves and the universe of which we’re all part of.

The Proper Understanding Of Torah Law and Jesus Law

I always hear we are free from the law. I have understood that to mean we are free from Jewish laws and traditions, not the 10 Commandments, since if that were true we would be free to murder or commit adultery. We have Christ saying I come to fulfill the law but also we are free from the (condemnation) law.

There is a duality here that no one can explain to me. Everyone admits we are free from the law yet everyone says we are to obey the (law) 10 commandments (except The Sabbath). Why do they exclude the Sabbath??

If the 10 commandments are in fact still applicable, why is observing the Sabbath not applicable, especially since it was first hinted at in Genesis, prior to the existence of Jews or Gentiles. I have understood the 10 commandments as establishing the relationship of man to man and God to man and to be somewhat eternal.

Recently, in looking at the Sabbath, I see the Authority of the Father in establishing the Sabbath but no authority to make our day of worship Sunday Frankly, I can’t see how the leap was made to Sunday.

In Matt 5:17 Jesus said that He didn’t come to abolish the Law but to fulfill it. That means it’s still in effect and that violating the Law is still a sin.

To fulfill the Law Jesus died so that we could be forgiven all of our violations of it. In essence, His death was the punishment in advance for all of our sins. Being free from the law means we can have a righteousness that comes through faith in Him, instead of trying to earn a righteousness that comes from keeping the Law.

Now we’re free to follow God’s laws as a sign of our gratitude, because that’s the way He wants us to behave, not out fear of going to hell if we don’t. We don’t have to obey His laws, but it pleases Him when we do, and He blesses us for it.

Sunday worship is a tradition that came out of celebrating the Lord’s Resurrection, which took place on Sunday Morning. In Colossians 2:16 Paul said “Therefore do not let anyone judge you by what you eat or drink, or with regard to a religious festival, a New Moon celebration or a Sabbath day.”

If you are convinced that Saturday is the only legitimate Sabbath day, then keep the Sabbath on Saturday. But you should not judge a person who believes that Sunday is the right day, or criticize him or her for keeping the Sabbath then.

The Complete List of Early Jewish and Christian Writings

Genesis Ezekiel Psalms

Exodus Hosea Proverbs

Leviticus Joel Job

Numbers Amos Song of Solomon

Deuteronomy Obadiah Ruth

Joshua Jonah Lamentations

Judges Micah Ecclesiastes

1 Samuel Nahum Esther

2 Samuel Habakkuk Daniel

1 Kings Zephaniah Ezra

2 Kings Haggai Nehemiah

Isaiah Zechariah 1 Chronicles

Jeremiah Malachi 2 Chronicles


1 Esdras Wisdom of Solomon Susanna

2 Esdras Wisdom of Jesus Son of Sirach Bel and the Dragon

Tobit Baruch Prayer of Manasseh

Judith Letter of Jeremiah 1 Maccabees

Additions to Esther Prayer of Azariah 2 Maccabees

Pseudepigrapha (some not Jewish)

Apocalypse of Abraham Eupolemus 3 Maccabees

Testament of Abraham Pseudo-Eupolemus 4 Maccabees

Apocalypse of Adam Apocryphon of Ezekiel 5 Maccabees

Testament of Adam Ezekiel the Tragedian Syriac Menander

Life of Adam and Eve Greek Apocalypse of Ezra Testament of Moses

Ahiqar Questions of Ezra Book of Noah

Letter of Aristeas Revelation of Ezra Orphica

Aristeas the Exegete Vision of Ezra Philo the Epic Poet

Aristobulus Fragments of Pseudo-Greek Poets Pseudo-Philo

Artapanus Pseudo-Hecataeus Pseudo-Phocylides

2 Baruch Hellenistic Synagogal Prayers The Lives of the Prophets

3 Baruch Testament of Isaac History of the Rechabites

4 Baruch Martyrdom and Ascension of Isaiah Apocalypse of Sedrach

Cleodemus Malchus Ladder of Jacob Treatise of Shem

Apocalypse of Daniel Prayer of Jacob Sibylline Oracles

More Psalms of David Testament of Jacob Odes of Solomon

Demetrius the Chronographer Jannes and Jambres Psalms of Solomon

Eldad and Modad Testament of Job Testament of Solomon

Apocalypse of Elijah Joseph and Aseneth Thallus

1 Enoch History of Joseph Theodotus

2 Enoch Prayer of Joseph Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs

3 Enoch Jubilees Apocalypse of Zephaniah

Dead Sea Scrolls 

Philo of Alexandria – see Introduction to Philo

On the Creation On the Migration of Abraham On the Virtues

Allegorical Interpretation, I Who is the Heir of Divine Things? On Rewards and Punishments

Allegorical Interpretation, II On Mating Every Good Man is Free

Allegorical Interpretation, III On Flight and Finding On the Contemplative Life

On the Cherubim On the Change of Names On the Eternity of the World

On the Birth of Abel On Dreams Flaccus

Worse is Wont to Attack Better On Abraham Hypothetica: Apology for the Jews

On the Posterity of Cain and His Exile On Joseph On Providence: Fragment I

On the Giants On the Life of Moses, I On Providence: Fragment II

On the Unchangableness of God On the Life of Moses, II On the Embassy to Gaius

On Husbandry The Decalogue Questions and Answers on Genesis, I

Concerning Noah’s Work as a Planter The Special Laws, I Questions and Answers on Genesis, II

On Drunkenness The Special Laws, II Questions and Answers on Genesis, III

On Sobriety The Special Laws, III Appendix 1: Concerning the World

On the Confusion of Tongues The Special Laws, IV Appendix 2: Fragments

Flavius Josephus – see Introduction to Josephus

Antiquities Book I Antiquities Book XI Wars Book I

Antiquities Book II Antiquities Book XII Wars Book II

Antiquities Book III Antiquities Book XIII Wars Book III

Antiquities Book IV Antiquities Book XIV Wars Book IV

Antiquities Book V Antiquities Book XV Wars Book V

Antiquities Book VI Antiquities Book XVI Wars Book VI

Antiquities Book VII Antiquities Book XVII Wars Book VII

Antiquities Book VIII Antiquities Book XVIII Life of Josephus

Antiquities Book IX Antiquities Book XIX Against Apion Book I

Antiquities Book X Antiquities Book XX Against Apion Book II


Early Jewish Writings is the most complete collection of Jewish documents from antiquity with translations.

New Testament — Apocrypha — Gnostics — Church Fathers — 30-60 Passion Narrative

40-80 Lost Sayings Gospel Q

50-60 1 Thessalonians

50-60 Philippians

50-60 Galatians

50-60 1 Corinthians

50-60 2 Corinthians

50-60 Romans

50-60 Philemon

50-80 Colossians

50-90 Signs Gospel

50-95 Book of Hebrews

50-120 Didache

50-140 Gospel of Thomas

50-140 Oxyrhynchus 1224 Gospel

50-150 Apocalypse of Adam

50-150 Eugnostos the Blessed

50-200 Sophia of Jesus Christ

65-80 Gospel of Mark

70-100 Epistle of James

70-120 Egerton Gospel

70-160 Gospel of Peter

70-160 Secret Mark

70-200 Fayyum Fragment

70-200 Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs

73-200 Mara Bar Serapion

80-100 2 Thessalonians

80-100 Ephesians

80-100 Gospel of Matthew

80-110 1 Peter

80-120 Epistle of Barnabas

80-130 Gospel of Luke

80-130 Acts of the Apostles

80-140 1 Clement

80-150 Gospel of the Egyptians

80-150 Gospel of the Hebrews

80-250 Christian Sibyllines

90-95 Revelation

90-120 Gospel of John

90-120 1 John

90-120 2 John

90-120 3 John

90-120 Epistle of Jude

93 Flavius Josephus

100-150 1 Timothy

100-150 2 Timothy

100-150 Titus

100-150 Apocalypse of Peter

100-150 Secret Book of James

100-150 Preaching of Peter

100-160 Gospel of the Ebionites

100-160 Gospel of the Nazoreans

100-160 Shepherd of Hermas

100-160 2 Peter

100-200 Odes of Solomon

100-200 Gospel of Eve

100-230 Thunder, Perfect Mind

101-220 Book of Elchasai

105-115 Ignatius of Antioch

110-140 Polycarp to the Philippians

110-140 Papias

110-160 Oxyrhynchus 840 Gospel

110-160 Traditions of Matthias

111-112 Pliny the Younger

115 Suetonius

115 Tacitus

120-130 Quadratus of Athens

120-130 Apology of Aristides

120-140 Basilides

120-140 Naassene Fragment

120-160 Valentinus

120-180 Apocryphon of John

120-180 Gospel of Mary

120-180 Dialogue of the Savior

120-180 Gospel of the Savior

120-180 2nd Apocalypse of James

120-180 Trimorphic Protennoia

120-180 Gospel of Perfection

120-200 Genna Marias

130-140 Marcion

130-150 Aristo of Pella

130-160 Epiphanes On Righteousness

130-160 Ophite Diagrams

130-160 2 Clement

130-170 Gospel of Judas

130-200 Epistle of Mathetes to Diognetus

140-150 Epistula Apostolorum 

140-160 Ptolemy

140-160 Isidore

140-170 Fronto

140-170 Infancy Gospel of James

140-170 Infancy Gospel of Thomas

140-180 Gospel of Truth

150-160 Martyrdom of Polycarp

150-160 Justin Martyr

150-180 Excerpts of Theodotus

150-180 Heracleon

150-200 Ascension of Isaiah

150-200 Interpretation of Knowledge

150-200 Testimony of Truth

150-200 Acts of Peter

150-200 Acts of John

150-200 Acts of Paul

150-200 Acts of Andrew

150-225 Acts of Peter and the Twelve

150-225 Book of Thomas the Contender

150-250 Paraphrase of Shem

150-250 Fifth and Sixth Books of Esra

150-300 Authoritative Teaching

150-300 Coptic Apocalypse of Paul

150-300 Prayer of the Apostle Paul

150-300 Discourse on the Eighth and Ninth

150-300 Melchizedek

150-350 Preaching of Paul

150-350 Epistle to the Laodiceans

150-350 Questions of Mary

150-350 Allogenes, the Stranger

150-350 Hypsiphrone

150-350 Valentinian Exposition

150-350 Act of Peter

150-360 Concept of Our Great Power

150-400 Acts of Pilate

150-400 Anti-Marcionite Prologues

150-400 Dialogue Between John and Jesus

160-170 Tatian’s Address to the Greeks

160-180 Claudius Apollinaris

160-180 Apelles

160-180 Julius Cassianus

160-250 Octavius of Minucius Felix

161-180 Acts of Carpus

165-175 Melito of Sardis

165-175 Hegesippus

165-175 Dionysius of Corinth

165-175 Lucian of Samosata

167 Marcus Aurelius

170-175 Diatessaron

170-200 Dura-Europos Gospel Harmony

170-200 Muratorian Canon

170-200 Treatise on the Resurrection

170-220 Letter of Peter to Philip

170-230 Thought of Norea

175-180 Athenagoras of Athens

175-185 Irenaeus of Lyons

175-185 Rhodon

175-185 Theophilus of Caesarea

175-190 Galen

178 Celsus

178 Letter from Vienna and Lyons

180 Passion of the Scillitan Martyrs

180-185 Theophilus of Antioch

180-185 Acts of Apollonius

180-220 Bardesanes

180-220 Kerygmata Petrou

180-230 Hippolytus of Rome

180-230 Sentences of Sextus

180-250 1st Apocalypse of James

180-250 Gospel of Philip

182-202 Clement of Alexandria

185-195 Maximus of Jerusalem

185-195 Polycrates of Ephesus

188-217 Talmud

189-199 Victor I

190-210 Pantaenus

190-230 Second Discourse of Great Seth

193 Anonymous Anti-Montanist

193-216 Inscription of Abercius

197-220 Tertullian

200-210 Serapion of Antioch

200-210 Apollonius

200-220 Caius

200-220 Philostratus

200-225 Acts of Thomas

200-230 Ammonius of Alexandria

200-230 Zostrianos

200-230 Three Steles of Seth

200-230 Exegesis on the Soul

200-250 Didascalia

200-250 Books of Jeu

200-300 Pistis Sophia

200-300 Tripartite Tractate

200-300 Hypostasis of the Archons

200-300 Prayer of Thanksgiving

200-300 Coptic Apocalypse of Peter

200-330 Apostolic Church Order

200-350 Holy Book of the Great Invisible Spirit

200-450 Monarchian Prologues

203 Acts of Perpetua and Felicitas

203-250 Origen

210-245 Lucian of Antioch

217-222 Callistus

230-265 Dionysius of Alexandria

230-268 Firmilian of Caesarea

240-260 Commodian

246-258 Cyprian

250-274 Gospel of Mani

250-300 Teachings of Silvanus

250-300 Excerpt from the Perfect Discourse

250-350 Coptic Apocalypse of Elijah

250-400 Apocalypse of Paul

251-253 Pope Cornelius

251-258 Novatian

254-257 Pope Stephen

259-268 Dionysius of Rome

260-280 Theognostus

265-282 Gregory Thaumaturgus

269-274 Pope Felix

270-310 Victorinus of Pettau

270-312 Methodius

270-330 Marsanes

270-330 On the Origin of the World

270-350 De Recta in Deum Fide

280-300 Hesychius

280-310 Pierius

280-310 Pamphilus of Caesarea

297-310 Arnobius of Sicca

300-311 Peter of Alexandria

300-320 Pseudo-Clementine Homilies

300-340 Eusebius of Caesarea

300-350 Manichean Acts of Leucius Charinus

300-390 Letters of Paul and Seneca

300-400 Apocalypse of Thomas

300-400 Freer Logion

300-600 Gospel of Gamaliel

303-316 Lactantius

310-334 Reticius of Autun

320-380 Pseudo-Clementine Recognitions

THE 613 LAWS of the OLD TESTAMENT Called the Mitzvot

A simplified listing of the Laws of God as they were understood by the Old Testament Hebrews, and the Hebrew people of the present day.
The Hebrew word for “LAW” is Torah. In its most limited definition it refers to the Pentateuch 1. Yet, the word, Torah, is used to speak of the entire Old Testament as well. 

Torah basically means “to teach or to instruct”. It infers to either human instruction or Divine instruction. Through the Law, God shows His interest in all aspects of man’s life. Motivated by love, God instructs His people in the ways of Wisdom and knowledge. Since God’s Law is given for our good, its regulations, both negative and positive are for our protection and prosperity. 

The Law is the revealed mind of God. His Will is His commandment, and His commandment is His Law. Thus, the Law is Divine since it comes from a Divine source. It is also perfect, as God Himself is perfect. God’s Law supercedes all other laws. It transcends all other law, making it the Supreme Law of the entire earth.

God’s Law is also comprehensive and universal. It speaks to all areas of life, and to every living soul upon the face of the earth. The Law speaks of ceremonial truths, moral truths and dietary truths. It speaks of man’s duty toward God, and man’s duty toward his fellow man.

The Law addresses, philosophy, psychology, biology, physics, all other sciences, economics, ecology, Theology, culture, politics, military relations, international and domestic relations, family life, church life, business, criminal and civil law, and every other aspect of life thinkable. There is nothing that God’s Law fails to address specifically. God regulates all life by His perfect Law.

The New Testament word for Law is Nomos. This is where we get the word Theonomic [Theo = God – Nomos = Law]. The New Testament is just as much God’s Law as the Torah.

Since God is the Lawgiver, and His Word is His Law, then it follows that every Word which proceeds from His mouth is His Law. The New Testament is as much God’s Law as the Old. The two are One harmonious union.

Furthermore, the New Testament explains the Old. While the New Testament is contained in the Old Testament, the Old acts as particular case studies of applied jurisprudence.

The following list will help in understanding the division of God’s Old Testament Law, which the Hebrews have recorded, as 613.

If we combine both Old and New Testament as One Law, the list grows and becomes more comprehensive. Yet, what we find in the New Testament is simply an augmentation of what is already contained in the Old. 
1.To know that God exists (Ex. 20:2; Deut. 5:6) 
2.Not to entertain the idea that there is any god but the Eternal (Ex. 20:3) 
3.Not to blaspheme (Ex. 22:27-28 ) Cf Lev 24:16
4.To hallow God’s name (Lev. 22:32) 
5.Not to profane God’s name (Lev. 22:32
6.To know that God is One, a complete Unity (Deut. 6:4) 
7.To love God (Deut. 6:5) 
8.To fear Him reverently (Deut. 6:13; 10:20) 


9.Not to put the word of God to the test (Deut. 6:16) 
10.To imitate His good and upright ways (Deut. 28:9) 
The Law 
11.To honor the old and the wise (Lev. 19:32) 
12.To learn Torah and to teach it (Deut. 6:7) 
13.To cleave to those who know Him (Deut. 10:20) 
14.Not to add to the commandments of the Torah.(Deut.13:1)


15.Not to take away from the commandments of the Torah (Deut.13:1)


16.That every person shall write a scroll of the Torah for himself (Deut. 31:19) 
17.To circumcise the male offspring (Gen. 17:12; Lev. 12:3)
18.To put fringes on the corners of clothing (Num. 15:38)
19.To bind God’s Word on the head (Deut. 6:8) 
20.To bind God’s Word on the arm (Deut. 6:8) 
21.To affix the mezuzah to the door posts and gates of your house (Deut. 6:9) 
Prayer and Blessing 
22.To pray to God (Ex. 23:25; Deut. 6:13) 
23.To read the Shema [lit:The Hearing] in the morning and at night (Deut. 6:7) 
24.To recite grace after meals (Deut. 8:10) 
25.Not to lay down a stone for worship (Lev. 26:1) 
Love and Brotherhood 
26.To love all human beings who are of the covenant (Lev. 19:18)
27.Not to stand by idly when a human life is in danger (Lev. 19:16)
28.Not to wrong any one in speech (Lev. 25:17) 
29.Not to carry tales (Lev. 19:16) 
30.Not to cherish hatred in one’s heart (Lev. 19:17) 
31.Not to take revenge (Lev. 19:18) 
32.Not to bear a grudge (Lev. 19:18) 
33.Not to put any Jew to shame (Lev. 19:17) 
34.Not to curse any other Israelite (Lev. 19:14) 
35.Not to give occasion to the simple-minded to stumble on the road (Lev. 19:14) 

(this includes doing anything that will cause another to sin) 
36.To rebuke the sinner (Lev. 19:17) 
37.To relieve a neighbor of his burden and help to unload his beast (Ex. 23:5) 
38.To assist in replacing the load upon a neighbor’s beast (Deut.22:4) 
39.Not to leave a beast, that has fallen down beneath its burden, unaided (Deut. 22:4) 
The Poor and Unfortunate
40.Not to afflict an orphan or a widow (Ex. 22:21) 
41.Not to reap the entire field (Lev. 19:9; Lev. 23:22) 
42.To leave the unreaped corners of the field or orchard for the poor (Lev. 19:9) 
43.Not to gather gleanings (the ears that have fallen to the ground while reaping) 

(Lev. 19:9) 
44.To leave the gleanings for the poor (Lev. 19:9)
45.Not to gather ol’loth (the imperfect clusters) of the vineyard (Lev. 19:10) 
46.To leave ol’loth (the imperfect clusters) of the vineyard for the poor (Lev. 19:10; Deut. 24:21) 
47.Not to gather the single grapes that have fallen to the ground (Lev. 19:10) 
48.To leave the single grapes of the vineyard for the poor (Lev. 19:10) 
49.Not to return to take a forgotten sheaf (Deut. 24:19) This applies to all fruit trees (Deut. 24:20) 
50.To leave the forgotten sheaves for the poor (Deut. 24:19-20)
51.Not to refrain from maintaining a poor man and giving him what he needs (Deut. 15:7) 
52.To give charity according to one’s means (Deut. 15:11)
Treatment of the Gentiles
53.To love the stranger (Deut. 10:19) (CCA61). 
54.Not to wrong the stranger in speech (Ex. 22:20) 
55.Not to wrong the stranger in buying or selling (Ex. 22:20)

56.Not to intermarry with gentiles (Deut. 7:3) 
57.To exact the debt of an alien (Deut. 15:3) 
58.To lend to an alien at interest (Deut. 23:21) 
Marriage, Divorce and Family
59.To honor father and mother (Ex. 20:12) 
60.Not to smite a father or a mother (Ex. 21:15) 
61.Not to curse a father or mother (Ex. 21:17) 
62.To reverently fear father and mother (Lev. 19:3) 
63.To be fruitful and multiply (Gen. 1:28) 
64.That a eunuch shall not marry a daughter of Israel (Deut. 23:2)
65.That a bastard [Heb.mamzer = illegitimate son] shall not marry the daughter of a Jew (Deut.23:3) 
66.That an Ammonite or Moabite shall never marry the daughter of an Israelite (Deut. 23:4) 
67.Not to exclude a descendant of Esau from the community of Israel for three generations (Deut. 23:8-9) 
68.Not to exclude an Egyptian from the community of Israel for three generations (Deut. 23:8-9)
69.That there shall be no harlot (in Israel); that is, that there shall be no intercourse with a woman, without previous marriage with a deed of marriage and formal declaration of marriage (Deut.23:18) 
70.To take a wife by the sacrament of marriage (Deut.24:1) 
71.That the newly married husband shall (be free) for one year to rejoice with his wife (Deut. 24:5) 
72.That a bridegroom shall be exempt for a whole year from taking part in any public labor, such as military service, guarding the wall and similar duties (Deut. 24:5) 
73.Not to withhold food, clothing or conjugal rights from a wife (Ex. 21:10) 
74.That the woman suspected of adultery shall be dealt with as prescribed in the Torah (Num. 5:30) 
75.That one who defames his wife’s honor (by falsely accusing her of unchastity before marriage) must live with her all his lifetime (Deut. 22:19) 
76.That a man may not divorce his wife concerning whom he has published an evil report (about her unchastity before marriage) (Deut. 22:19) 
77.To divorce by a formal written document (Deut. 24:1)
78.That one who divorced his wife shall not remarry her, if after the divorce she had been married to another man (Deut. 24:4)
79.That a widow whose husband died childless must not be married to anyone but her deceased husband’s brother (Deut. 25:5) (this is only in effect insofar as it requires the procedure of release below). 
80.To marry the widow of a brother who has died childless (Deut.25:5) 

(this is only in effect insofar as it requires the procedure of release below ) 
81.That the widow formally release the brother-in-law (if he refuses to marry her) (Deut. 25:7-9) 
Forbidden Sexual Relations 
82.Not to indulge in familiarities with relatives, such as sensual kissing, carnal embracing, or provocative winking which may lead to incest (Lev.18:6) 
83.Not to commit incest with one’s mother (Lev. 18:7) 
84.Not to commit sodomy with one’s father (Lev. 18:7) 
85.Not to commit incest with one’s father’s wife (Lev. 18:8)
86.Not to commit incest with one’s sister (Lev. 18:9) 
87.Not to commit incest with one’s father’s wife’s daughter (Lev.18:9) 
88.Not to commit incest with one’s son’s daughter (Lev. 18:10)
89.Not to commit incest with one’s daughter’s daughter (Lev.18:10)
90.Not to commit incest with one’s daughter (this is not explicitly in the Torah but is inferred from other explicit commands that would include it) 
91.Not to commit incest with one’s fathers sister (Lev. 18:12)
92.Not to commit incest with one’s mother’s sister (Lev. 18:13)
93.Not to commit incest with one’s father’s brothers wife (Lev.18:14)
94.Not to commit sodomy with one’s father’s brother (Lev. 18:14)
95.Not to commit incest with one’s son’s wife (Lev. 18:15)
96.Not to commit incest with one’s brother’s wife (Lev. 18:16)
97.Not to commit incest with one’s wife’s daughter (Lev. 18:17)
98.Not to commit incest with the daughter of one’s wife’s son (Lev.18:17)
99.Not to commit incest with the daughter of one’s wife’s daughter (Lev. 18:17) 
100.Not to commit incest with one’s wife’s sister (Lev. 18:18)
101.Not to have intercourse with a woman, in her menstrual period (Lev. 18:19) 
102.Not to have intercourse with another man’s wife (Lev. 18:20)
103.Not to commit sodomy with a male (Lev. 18:22) 
104.Not to have intercourse with a beast (Lev. 18:23) 
105.That a woman shall not have intercourse with a beast (Lev.18:23)
106.Not to castrate the male of any species; neither a man, nor a domestic or wild beast, nor a fowl (Lev. 22:24) 
Times and Seasons 
107.That the new month shall be solemnly proclaimed as holy, and the months and years shall be calculated by the Supreme Court only (Ex. 12:2) 
108.Not to travel on the Sabbath outside the limits of one’s place of residence 

(Ex. 16:29) 
109.To sanctify the Sabbath (Ex. 20:8) 
110.Not to do work on Sabbath (Ex. 20:10) 
111.To rest on Sabbath (Ex. 23:12; 34:21) 
112.To celebrate the festivals (Ex.23:14) 
113.To rejoice on the festivals (Deut. 16:14) 
114.To appear in the Sanctuary on the festivals (Deut. 16:16)
115.To remove leaven on the Eve of Passover (Ex. 12:15)
116.To rest on the first day of Passover (Ex. 12:16; Lev. 23:7)
117.Not to do work on the first day of Passover (Ex. 12:16; Lev.23:6-7)


118.To rest on the seventh day of Passover (Ex. 12:16; Lev. 23:8)
119.Not to do work on the seventh day of Passover (Ex. 12:16;Lev. 23:8)


120.To eat “matzah” [unleavened bread] on the first night of Passover (Ex. 12:18)
121.That no leaven be in the Israelite’s possession during Passover (Ex. 12:19) 
122.Not to eat any food containing leaven on Passover (Ex.12:20) 
123.Not to eat leaven on Passover (Ex. 13:3) 
124.That leaven shall not be seen in an Israelite’s home during Passover (Ex. 13:7) 
125.To discuss the departure from Egypt on the first night of Passover (Ex. 13:8) 
126.Not to eat leaven after mid-day on the fourteenth of Nissan (Deut. 16:3) 
127.To count forty-nine days from the time of the cutting of the Omer 

(i.e. first sheaves of the barley harvest) (Lev. 23:15)
128.To rest on Pentecost (Lev. 23:21) 
129.Not to do work on the feast of Pentecost (Lev. 23:21) 
130.To rest on Rosh Hashanah [i.e the feast of Trumpets] (Lev. 23:24) (CCA29) 
131.Not to do work on Rosh Hashanah (Lev. 23:25) 
132.To hear the sound of the Trumpet [Heb. shofar or ram’s horn] (Num.29:1) 
133.To fast on Yom Kippur i.e the day of Atonement (Lev. 23:27) 
134.Not to eat or drink on Yom Kippur (Lev. 23:29) (CCN152) 
135.Not to do work on Yom Kippur (Lev. 23:31) (CCN151)
136.To rest on the Yom Kippur (Lev. 23:32) 
137.To rest on the first day of the feast of Tabernacles or Booths.[Heb. Sukkot] (Lev. 23:35) 
138.Not to do work on the first day of the feast of Tabernacles. (Lev. 23:35)
139.To rest on the eighth day of the feast of Tabernacles (Lev.23:36) 
140.Not to do work on the eighth day of the feast of Tabernacles

(Lev. 23:36) 
141.To take during Sukkot a palm branch and the other three plants (Lev. 23:40) 
142.To dwell in booths seven days during Sukkot (Lev. 23:42)
Dietary Laws 
143.To examine the marks in cattle (so as to distinguish the clean from the unclean) (Lev. 11:2) 
144.Not to eat the flesh of unclean beasts (Lev. 11:4) 
145.To examine the marks in fishes (so as to distinguish the clean from the unclean (Lev. 11:9) 
146.Not to eat unclean fish (Lev. 11:11) 
147.To examine the marks in fowl, so as to distinguish the clean from the unclean (Deut. 14:11) 
148.Not to eat unclean fowl (Lev. 11:13) 
149.To examine the marks in locusts, so as to distinguish the clean from the unclean (Lev. 11:21) 
150.Not to eat a worm found in fruit (Lev. 11:41) 
151.Not to eat of things that creep upon the earth (Lev. 11:41-42)
152.Not to eat any vermin of the earth (Lev. 11:44)
153.Not to eat things that swarm in the water (Lev. 11:43 and 46)
154.Not to eat of winged insects (Deut. 14:19) 
155.Not to eat the flesh of a beast that is torn (Ex.22:30) 
156.Not to eat the flesh of a beast that died of itself (Deut. 14:21)
157.To slay cattle, deer and fowl according to the law if their flesh is to be eaten (Deut. 12:21) 
158.Not to eat a limb removed from a living beast (Deut. 12:23)
159.Not to slaughter an animal and its young on the same day (Lev.22:28) 
160.Not to take the mother-bird with the young (Deut. 22:6)
161.To set the mother-bird free when taking the nest (Deut.22:6-7) 
162.Not to eat the flesh of an ox that was condemned to be stoned (Ex. 21:28) 
163.Not to boil meat with milk (Ex. 23:19) 
164.Not to eat flesh with milk (Ex. 34:26) 
165.Not to eat the of the thigh-vein which shrank (Gen. 32:33)
166.Not to eat the fat of the offering (Lev. 7:23) 
167.Not to eat blood (Lev. 7:26) 
168.To cover the blood of undomesticated animals (deer, etc.) and of fowl that have been killed (Lev. 17:13) 
169.Not to eat or drink like a glutton or a drunkard (not to rebel against father or mother) (Lev. 19:26; Deut. 21:20) 
Business Practices 
170.Not to do wrong in buying or selling (Lev. 25:14) 
171.Not to make a loan to an Israelite on interest (Lev. 25:37)
172.Not to borrow on interest (Deut. 23:20) (because this would cause the lender to sin) 
173.Not to take part in any usurious transaction between borrower and lender, neither as a surety, nor as a witness, nor as a writer of the bond for them (Ex. 22:24) 
174.To lend to a poor person (Ex. 22:24) 
175.Not to demand from a poor man repayment of his debt, when the creditor knows that he cannot pay, nor press him (Ex.22:24) 
176.Not to take in pledge utensils used in preparing food (Deut.24:6)


177.Not to exact a pledge from a debtor by force (Deut. 24:10)
178.Not to keep the pledge from its owner at the time when he needs it (Deut. 24:12) 
179.To return a pledge to its owner (Deut. 24:13) 
180.Not to take a pledge from a widow (Deut. 24:17)
181.Not to commit fraud in measuring (Lev. 19:35)
182.To ensure that scales and weights are correct (Lev. 19:36)
183.Not to possess inaccurate measures and weights (Deut.25:13-14) 
Employees, Servants and Slaves 
184.Not to delay payment of a hired man’s wages (Lev. 19:13)
185.That the hired laborer shall be permitted to eat of the produce he is reaping (Deut. 23:25-26) 
186.That the hired laborer shall not take more than he can eat (Deut. 23:25) 
187.That a hired laborer shall not eat produce that is not being harvested (Deut. 23:26) 
188.To pay wages to the hired man at the due time (Deut. 24:15)
189.To deal judicially with the Hebrew bondman in accordance with the laws appertaining to him (Ex. 21:2-6) 
190.Not to compel the Hebrew servant to do the work of a slave (Lev. 25:39) 
191.Not to sell a Hebrew servant as a slave (Lev. 25:42) 
192.Not to treat a Hebrew servant rigorously (Lev. 25:43)
193.Not to permit a gentile to treat harshly a Hebrew bondman sold to him (Lev. 25:53) 
194.Not to send away a Hebrew bondman servant empty handed, when he is freed from service (Deut. 15:13) 
195.To bestow liberal gifts upon the Hebrew bondsman (at the end of his term of service), and the same should be done to a Hebrew bondwoman (Deut. 15:14) 
196.To redeem a Hebrew maid-servant (Ex. 21:8) 
197.Not to sell a Hebrew maid-servant to another person (Ex. 21:8)
198.To espouse a Hebrew maid-servant (Ex. 21:8-9) 
199.To keep the Canaanite slave forever (Lev. 25:46)
200.Not to surrender a slave, who has fled to the land of Israel, to his owner who lives outside Palestine (Deut. 23:16) 


201.Not to wrong such a slave (Deut. 23:17) 
202.Not to muzzle a beast, while it is working in produce which it can eat and enjoy (Deut. 25:4)
Vows, Oaths and Swearing
203.That a man should fulfill whatever he has uttered (Deut. 23:24)
204.Not to swear needlessly (Ex. 20:7) 
205.Not to violate an oath or swear falsely (Lev. 19:12) 
206.To decide in cases of annulment of vows, according to the rules set forth in the Torah (Num. 30:2-17) 


207.Not to break a vow (Num. 30:3) 
208.To swear by His name truly (Deut. 10:20) 
209.Not to delay in fulfilling vows or bringing vowed or free-will offerings (Deut. 23:22) 
The Sabbatical and Jubilee Years
210.To let the land lie fallow in the Sabbatical year (Ex. 23:11; Lev.25:2) 
211.To cease from tilling the land in the Sabbatical year (Ex. 23:11) (Lev. 25:2) 
212.Not to till the ground in the Sabbatical year (Lev. 25:4)
213.Not to do any work on the trees in the Sabbatical year (Lev.25:4) 
214.Not to reap the aftermath that grows in the Sabbatical year, in the same way as it is reaped in other years (Lev. 25:5)
215.Not to gather the fruit of the tree in the Sabbatical year in the same way as it is gathered in other years (Lev. 25:5)
216.To sound the Ram’s horn in the Sabbatical year (Lev. 25:9)
217.To release debts in the seventh year (Deut. 15:2) 
218.Not to demand return of a loan after the Sabbatical year has passed (Deut. 15:2)
219.Not to refrain from making a loan to a poor man, because of the release of loans in the Sabbatical year (Deut. 15:9) 
220.To assemble the people to hear the Torah at the close of the seventh year (Deut. 31:12) 
221.To count the years of the Jubilee by years and by cycles of seven years (Lev. 25:8) 
222.To keep the Jubilee year holy by resting and letting the land lie fallow (Lev. 25:10)
223.Not to cultivate the soil nor do any work on the trees, in the Jubilee Year (Lev. 25:11) 
224.Not to reap the aftermath of the field that grew of itself in the Jubilee Year, in the same way as in other years (Lev. 25:11) 
225.Not to gather the fruit of the tree in the Jubilee Year, in the same way as in other years (Lev. 25:11) 
226.To grant redemption to the land in the Jubilee year (Lev. 25:24)
The Court and Judicial Procedure 
227.To appoint judges and officers in every community of Israel (Deut. 16:18) 
228.Not to appoint as a judge, a person who is not well versed in the laws of the Torah, even if he is expert in other branches of knowledge (Deut. 1:17) 
229.To adjudicate cases of purchase and sale (Lev. 25:14) 
230.To judge cases of liability of a paid depositary (Ex. 22:9)
231.To adjudicate cases of loss for which a gratuitous borrower is liable (Ex. 22:13-14) 
232.To adjudicate cases of inheritances (Num. 27:8-11) 
233.To judge cases of damage caused by an uncovered pit (Ex.21:33-34) 
234.To judge cases of injuries caused by beasts (Ex. 21:35-36)
235.To adjudicate cases of damage caused by trespass of cattle (Ex.22:4)
236.To adjudicate cases of damage caused by fire (Ex. 22:5)
237.To adjudicate cases of damage caused by a gratuitous depositary (Ex. 22:6-7)
238.To adjudicate other cases between a plaintiff and a defendant (Ex. 22:8)
239.Not to curse a judge (Ex. 22:27) 
240.That one who possesses evidence shall testify in Court (Lev.5:1) 
241.Not to testify falsely (Ex. 20:13) 
242.That a witness, who has testified in a capital case, shall not lay down the law in that particular case (Num. 35:30) 
243.That a transgressor shall not testify (Ex. 23:1) 
244.That the court shall not accept the testimony of a close relative of the defendant in matters of capital punishment (Deut. 24:16)
245.Not to hear one of the parties to a suit in the absence of the other party (Ex. 23:1) 
246.To examine witnesses thoroughly (Deut. 13:15) 
247.Not to decide a case on the evidence of a single witness (Deut.19:15) 
248.To give the decision according to the majority, when there is a difference of opinion among the members of the Sanhedrin as to matters of law (Ex. 23:2) 
249.Not to decide, in capital cases, according to the view of the majority, when those who are for condemnation exceed by one only, those who are for acquittal (Ex. 23:2)
250.That, in capital cases, one who had argued for acquittal, shall not later on argue for condemnation (Ex. 23:2) 
251.To treat parties in a litigation with equal impartiality (Lev. 19:15)
252.Not to render iniquitous decisions (Lev. 19:15) 
253.Not to favor a great man when trying a case (Lev. 19:15)
254.Not to take a bribe (Ex. 23:8) 
255.Not to be afraid of a bad man, when trying a case (Deut. 1:17)
256.Not to be moved in trying a case, by the poverty of one of the parties (Ex. 23:3; Lev. 19:15)
257.Not to pervert the judgment of strangers or orphans (Deut.24:17) 
258.Not to pervert the judgment of a sinner (a person poor in fulfillment of commandments) (Ex. 23:6) 
259.Not to render a decision on one’s personal opinion, but only on the evidence of two witnesses, who saw what actually occurred (Ex. 23:7) 
260.Not to execute one guilty of a capital offense, before he has stood his trial (Num. 35:12)
261.To accept the rulings of every Supreme Court in Israel (Deut.17:11) 


262.Not to rebel against the orders of the Court (Deut. 17:11)
Injuries and Damages 
263.To make a parapet for your roof (Deut. 22:8) 
264.Not to leave something that might cause hurt (Deut. 22:8)


265.To save the pursued even at the cost of the life of the pursuer (Deut. 25:12) 
266.Not to spare a pursuer, but he is to be slain before he reaches the pursued and slays the latter, or uncovers his nakedness (Deut. 25:12) 
Property and Property Rights 
267.Not to sell a field in the land of Israel in perpetuity (Lev. 25:23)
268.Not to change the character of the open land (about the cities of) the Levites or of their fields; not to sell it in perpetuity, but it may be redeemed at any time (Lev. 25:34)
269.That houses sold within a walled city may be redeemed within a year (Lev. 25:29) 
270.Not to remove landmarks (property boundaries) (Deut. 19:14)
271.Not to swear falsely in denial of another’s property rights (Lev.19:11) 
272.Not to deny falsely another’s property rights (Lev. 19:11)
273.Never to settle in the land of Egypt (Deut. 17:16) 
274.Not to steal personal property (Lev. 19:11)  
275.To restore that which one took by robbery (Lev. 5:23) 
276.To return lost property (Deut. 22:1) 
277.Not to pretend not to have seen lost property, to avoid the obligation to return it (Deut. 22:3) 
Criminal Laws
278.Not to slay an innocent person (Ex. 20:13) 
279.Not to kidnap any person of Israel (Ex. 20:13) 
280.Not to rob by violence (Lev. 19:13) 
281.Not to defraud (Lev. 19:13) 
282.Not to covet what belongs to another (Ex. 20:14) 
283.Not to crave something that belongs to another (Deut. 5:18)
284.Not to indulge in evil thoughts and sights (Num. 15:39)
Punishment and Restitution 
285.That the Court shall pass sentence of death by decapitation with the sword (Ex. 21:20; Lev. 26:25)
286.That the Court shall pass sentence of death by strangulation (Lev. 20:10) 
287.That the Court shall pass sentence of death by burning with fire (Lev. 20:14) 
288.That the Court shall pass sentence of death by stoning (Deut.22:24) 
289.To hang the dead body of one who has incurred that penalty (Deut. 21:22) 
290.That the dead body of an executed criminal shall not remain hanging on the tree over night (Deut. 21:23) 
291.To inter the executed on the day of execution (Deut. 21:23)
292.Not to accept ransom from a murderer (Num. 35:31) 
293.To exile one who committed accidental homicide (Num. 35:25)
294.To establish six cities of refuge (for those who committed accidental homicide) 

(Deut. 19:3) 
295.Not to accept ransom from an accidental homicide, so as to relieve him from exile (Num. 35:32) 
296.To decapitate the heifer in the manner prescribed (in expiation of a murder on the road, the perpetrator of which remained undiscovered) (Deut. 21:4) 
297.Not to plow nor sow the rough valley (in which a heifer’s neck was broken) 

(Deut. 21:4) 
298.To adjudge a thief to pay compensation or (in certain cases) suffer death (Ex. 21:16; Ex. 21:37; Ex. 22:1) 
299.That he who inflicts a bodily injury shall pay monetary compensation (Ex. 21:18-19) 
300.To impose a penalty of fifty shekels upon the seducer (of an unbetrothed virgin) and enforce the other rules in connection with the case (Ex. 22:15-16) 
301.That the violator (of an unbetrothed virgin) shall marry her (Deut. 22:28-29) 
302.That one who has raped a damsel and has then (in accordance with the law) married her, may not divorce her (Deut. 22:29)
303.Not to inflict punishment on the sabbath (Ex. 35:3) (because some punishments were inflicted by fire) 
304.To punish the wicked by the infliction of stripes (Deut. 25:2)
305.Not to exceed the statutory number of stripes laid on one who has incurred that punishment (Deut. 25:3) (and by implication, not to strike anyone) 
306.Not to spare the offender, in imposing the prescribed penalties on one who has caused damage (Deut. 19:13) 
307.To do unto false witnesses as they had purposed to do (to the accused) (Deut. 19:19) 
308.Not to punish any one who has committed an offense under duress (Deut. 22:26) 
309.To heed the call of every prophet in each generation, provided that he neither adds to, nor takes away from the Torah (Deut.18:15) 
310.Not to prophesy falsely (Deut. 18:20)
311.Not to refrain from putting a false prophet to death nor to be in fear of him (Deut. 18:22) (negative) 
Idolatry, Idolaters and Idolatrous Practices 
312.Not to make a graven image; neither to make it oneself nor to have it made by others (Ex. 20:4) 
313.Not to make any figures for ornament, even if they are not worshipped (Ex. 20:20) 
314.Not to make idols even for others (Ex. 34:17; Lev. 19:4)
315.Not to use the ornament of any object of idolatrous worship (Deut. 7:25) 
316.Not to make use of an idol or its accessory objects, offerings, or libations (Deut. 7:26) 
317.Not to drink wine of idolaters (Deut. 32:38) 
318.Not to worship an idol in the way in which it is usually worshipped (Ex. 20:5) 
319.Not to bow down to an idol, even if that is not its mode of worship (Ex. 20:5) 
320.Not to prophesy in the name of an idol (Ex. 23:13; Deut.18:20) 
321.Not to hearken to one who prophesies in the name of an idol (Deut. 13:4) 
322.Not to lead the children of Israel astray to idolatry (Ex. 23:13)
323.Not to entice an Israelite to idolatry (Deut. 13:12) 
324.To destroy idolatry and its appurtenances (Deut. 12:2-3)
325.Not to love the enticer to idolatry (Deut. 13:9) 
326.Not to give up hating the enticer to idolatry (Deut. 13:9)
327.Not to save the enticer from capital punishment, but to stand by at his execution (Deut. 13:9) 
328.A person whom he attempted to entice to idolatry shall not urge pleas for the acquittal of the enticer (Deut. 13:9) 
329.A person whom he attempted to entice shall not refrain from giving evidence of the enticer’s guilt, if he has such evidence (Deut. 13:9) 
330.Not to swear by an idol to its worshipers, nor cause them to swear by it (Ex. 23:13) 
331.Not to turn one’s attention to idolatry (Lev. 19:4) 
332.Not to adopt the institutions of idolaters nor their customs (Lev. 18:3; Lev. 20:23) 
333.Not to pass a child through the fire to Molech (Lev. 18:21)
334.Not to suffer any one practicing witchcraft to live (Ex. 22:17)
335.Not to practice observing times or seasons -i.e. astrology (Lev. 19:26) 
336.Not to practice superstitions/witchcraft (doing things based on signs and potions; using charms and incantations) (Lev. 19:26)
337.Not to consult familiar spirits or ghosts (Lev. 19:31) 
338.Not to consult wizards (Lev. 19:31) 
339.Not to practice specific magic by using stones herbs or objects. (Deut. 18:10) 
340.Not to practice magical practices in general.(Deut. 18:10) 


341.Not to practice the art of casting spells over snakes and scorpions (Deut. 18:11)
342.Not to enquire of a familiar spirit or ghost (Deut. 18:11) 
343.Not to seek the dead (Deut. 18:11) 
344.Not to enquire of a wizard) (Deut. 18:11) 
345.Not to remove the entire beard, like the idolaters (Lev. 19:27)
346.Not to round the corners of the head, as the idolatrous priests do (Lev. 19:27) 
347.Not to cut oneself or make incisions in one’s flesh in grief, like the idolaters (Lev. 19:28; Deut. 14:1) 
348.Not to tattoo the body like the idolaters (Lev. 19:28) 
349.Not to make a bald spot for the dead (Deut. 14:1)
350.Not to plant a tree for worship (Deut. 16:21) 
351.Not to set up a pillar (for worship) (Deut. 16:22) 
352.Not to show favor to idolaters (Deut. 7:2) 
353.Not to make a covenant with the seven (Canaanite, idolatrous) nations (Ex. 23:32; Deut. 7:2) 
354.Not to settle idolaters in our land (Ex. 23:33) 
355.To slay the inhabitants of a city that has become idolatrous and burn that city (Deut. 13:16-17) 
356.Not to rebuild a city that has been led astray to idolatry (Deut.13:17) 
357.Not to make use of the property of city that has been so led astray (Deut. 13:18)
Agriculture and Animal Husbandry 
358.Not to cross-breed cattle of different species (Lev. 19:19)
359.Not to sow different kinds of seed together in one field (Lev.19:19) 
360.Not to eat the fruit of a tree for three years from the time it was planted (Lev. 19:23) 
361.That the fruit of fruit-bearing trees in the fourth year of their planting shall be sacred like the second tithe and eaten in Jerusalem (Lev. 19:24) 
362.Not to sow grain or herbs in a vineyard (Deut. 22:9) 
363.Not to eat the produce of diverse seeds sown in a vineyard (Deut. 22:9) 
364.Not to work with beasts of different species, yoked together (Deut. 22:10) 
365.That a man shall not wear women’s clothing (Deut. 22:5)
366.That a woman should not wear men’s clothing (Deut. 22:5)
367.Not to wear garments made of wool and linen mixed together (Deut. 22:11) 
The Firstborn 
368.To redeem the firstborn human male (Ex. 13:13; Ex. 34:20;Num. 18:15) 
369.To redeem the firstling of an ass (Ex. 13:13; Ex. 34:20)
370.To break the neck of the firstling of an ass if it is not redeemed (Ex. 13:13; Ex. 34:20) 
371.Not to redeem the firstling of a clean beast (Num. 18:17)
High Priest, Priests and Levites 
372.That the Priest shall put on priestly vestments for the service (Ex. 28:2) 
373.Not to tear the High Priest’s robe (Ex. 28:32) 
374.That the Priest shall not enter the Sanctuary at all times (i.e.,at times when he is not performing service) (Lev. 16:2)
375.That the ordinary Priest shall not defile himself by contact with any dead, other than immediate relatives (Lev. 21:1-3)
376.That the sons of Aaron defile themselves for their deceased relatives (by attending their burial), and mourn for them like other Israelites, who are commanded to mourn for their relatives (Lev.21:3) 
377.That a Priest who had an immersion during the day (to cleanse him from his uncleanness) shall not serve in the Sanctuary until after sunset (Lev. 21:6) 
378.That a Priest shall not marry a divorced woman (Lev. 21:7)
379.That a Priest shall not marry a harlot (Lev. 21:7) 
380.That a Priest shall not marry a profaned woman (Lev. 21:7)
381.To show honor to a Priest, and to give him precedence in all things that are holy (Lev. 21:8) 
382.That a High Priest shall not defile himself with any dead, even if they are relatives (Lev. 21:11) 
383.That a High Priest shall not go (under the same roof) with a dead body (Lev. 21:11) 
384.That the High Priest shall marry a virgin (Lev. 21:13)
385.That the High Priest shall not marry a widow (Lev. 21:14)
386.That the High Priest shall not cohabit with a widow, even without marriage, because he profanes her (Lev. 21:15)
387.That a person with a physical blemish shall not serve (in the Sanctuary) (Lev. 21:17)
388.That a Priest with a temporary blemish shall not serve there (Lev. 21:21) 
389.That a person with a physical blemish shall not enter the Sanctuary further than the altar (Lev. 21:23)
390.That a Priest who is unclean shall not serve (in the Sanctuary) (Lev. 22:2-3) 
391.To send the unclean out of the Camp, that is, out of the Sanctuary (Num. 5:2) 
392.That a Priest who is unclean shall not enter the courtyard (Num. 5:2-3) This refers to the Camp of the Sanctuary 


393.That the sons or descendants of Aaron shall bless Israel (Num. 6:23) 
394.To set apart a portion of the dough for the Priest (Num.15:20) 
395.That the Levites shall not occupy themselves with the service that belongs to the sons of Aaron, nor the sons of Aaron with that belonging to the Levites (Num. 18:3) 
396.That one not a descendant of Aaron in the male line shall not serve (in the Sanctuary) (Num. 18:4-7) 
397.That the Levite shall serve in the Sanctuary (Num. 18:23)
398.To give the Levites cities to dwell in, these to serve also as cities of refuge (Num. 35:2)
399.That none of the tribe of Levi shall take any portion of territory in the land (of Israel) (Deut. 18:1) 
400.That none of the tribe of Levi shall take any share of the spoil (at the conquest of the Promised Land) (Deut. 18:1)
401.That the sons of aaron shall serve in the Sanctuary in divisions, but on festivals, they all serve together (Deut. 18:6-8) 
Tithes, Taxes and T’rumah [Hebrew Offerings]
402.That an uncircumcised person shall not shall not eat of the t’rumah (heave offering), and the same applies to other holy things. This rule is inferred from the law of the Paschal offering, by similarity of phrase (Ex. 12:44-45 and Lev. 22:10) but it is not explicitly set forth in the Torah. Traditionally, it has been learnt that the rule that the uncircumcised must not eat holy things is an essential principle of the Torah and not an

enactment of the Scribes 
403.Not to alter the order of separating the t’rumah and the tithes; the separation be in the order first-fruits at the beginning, then the t’rumah, then the first tithe, and last the second tithe (Ex.22:28) 
404.To give half a shekel every year (to the Sanctuary for provision of the public sacrifices) (Ex. 30:13) 
405.That a preist [kohein] who is unclean shall not eat of the t’rumah (Lev.22:3-4) 
406.That a person who is not a kohein or the wife or unmarried daughter of a kohein shall not eat of the t’rumah (Lev. 22:10)
407.That a sojourner with a kohein or his hired servant shall not eat of the t’rumah (Lev. 22:10) 
408.Not to eat unholy things [Heb. tevel] (something from which the t’rumah and tithe have not yet been separated) (Lev. 22:15) 
409.To set apart the tithe of the produce (one tenth of the produce after taking out t’rumah) for the Levites (Lev. 27:30; Num.18:24) 
410.To tithe cattle (Lev. 27:32) 
411.Not to sell the tithe of the heard (Lev. 27:32-33) 
412.That the Levites shall set apart a tenth of the tithes, which they had received from the Israelites, and give it to the Priest [Heb.kohanim] (called the t’rumah of the tithe) (Num. 18:26) 
413.Not to eat the second tithe of cereals outside Jerusalem (Deut.12:17) 
414.Not to consume the second tithe of the vintage outside of Jerusalem (Deut. 12:17) 
415.Not to consume the second tithe of the oil outside of Jerusalem (Deut. 12:17) 
416.Not to forsake the Levites (Deut. 12:19); but their gifts (dues) should be given to them, so that they might rejoice therewith on each and every festival 
417.To set apart the second tithe in the first, second, fourth and fifth years of the sabbatical cycle to be eaten by its owner in Jerusalem (Deut. 14:22) 
418.To set apart the second tithe in the third and sixth year of the sabbatical cycle for the poor (Deut. 14:28-29) 
419.To give the kohein [i.e. Priest] the due portions of the carcass of cattle (Deut. 18:3) 
420.To give the first of the fleece to the priest (Deut. 18:4)
421.To set apart a small portion of the grain, wine and oil for the Priest [Heb. kohein] [Heb. t’rumah g’dolah i.e.(the great heave-offering) (Deut.18:4) 
422.Not to expend the proceeds of the second tithe on anything but food and drink (Deut. 26:14)
423.Not to eat the Second Tithe, even in Jerusalem, in a state of uncleanness, until the tithe had been redeemed (Deut. 26:14)
424.Not to eat the Second Tithe, when mourning (Deut. 26:14)
425.To make the declaration, when bringing the second tithe to the Sanctuary (Deut. 26:13)
The Temple, the Sanctuary and Sacred Objects 
426.Not to build an altar of hewn stone (Ex. 20:22) 
427.Not to mount the altar by steps (Ex. 20:23) 
428.To build the Sanctuary (Ex. 25:8) 
429.Not to remove the staves from the Ark (Ex. 25:15) 
430.To set the showbread and the frankincense before the Lord every Sabbath (Ex. 25:30) 
431.To kindle lights in the Sanctuary (Ex. 27:21) 
432.That the breastplate shall not be loosened from the ephod (Ex.28:28) 
433.To offer up incense twice daily (Ex. 30:7)
434.Not to offer strange incense nor any sacrifice upon the golden altar (Ex. 30:9) 
435.That the Priest shall wash his hands and feet at the time of service (Ex. 30:19) 
436.To prepare the oil of anointment and anoint high priests and kings with it (Ex. 30:31) 
437.Not to compound oil for lay use after the formula of the anointing oil (Ex. 30:32-33) 
438.Not to anoint a stranger with the anointing oil (Ex. 30:32)
439.Not to compound anything after the formula of the incense (Ex.30:37) 
440.That he who, in error, makes unlawful use of sacred things, shall make restitution of the value of his trespass and add a fifth (Lev. 5:16) 
441.To remove the ashes from the altar (Lev. 6:3) 
442.To keep fire always burning on the altar of the burnt-offering (Lev. 6:6)
443.Not to extinguish the fire on the altar (Lev. 6:6) 
444.That a kohein shall not enter the Sanctuary with disheveled hair (Lev. 10:6)
445.That a kohein shall not enter the Sanctuary with torn garments (Lev. 10:6)
446.That the kohein shall not leave the Courtyard of the Sanctuary, during service (Lev. 10:7)
447.That an intoxicated person shall not enter the Sanctuary nor give decisions in matters of the Law (Lev. 10:9-11) 
448.To revere the Sanctuary (Lev. 19:30) (today, this applies to synagogues) 
449.That when the Ark is carried, it should be carried on the shoulder (Num. 7:9)
450.To observe the second Passover (Num. 9:11) 
451.To eat the flesh of the Paschal lamb on it, with unleavened bread and bitter herbs (Num. 9:11) 
452.Not to leave any flesh of the Paschal lamb brought on the second Passover until the morning (Num. 9:12) 
453.Not to break a bone of the Paschal lamb brought on the second Passover (Num. 9:12) 
454.To sound the trumpets at the offering of sacrifices and in times of trouble (Num. 10:9-10) 
455.To watch over the edifice continually (Num. 18:2) 
456.Not to allow the Sanctuary to remain unwatched (Num. 18:5)
457.That an offering shall be brought by one who has in error committed a trespass against sacred things, or robbed, or lain carnally with a bond-maid betrothed to a man, or denied what was deposited with him and swore falsely to support his denial.

This is called a guilt-offering for a known trespass (Lev. 5:15-19)
458.Not to destroy anything of the Sanctuary, of synagogues, or of houses of study, nor erase the holy names (of God); nor may sacred scriptures be destroyed (Deut. 12:2-4)
Sacrifices and Offerings 
459.To sanctify the firstling of clean cattle and offer it up (Ex. 13:2;Deut. 15:19) 
460.To slay the Paschal lamb (Ex. 12:6) 
461.To eat the flesh of the Paschal sacrifice on the night of the fifteenth of Nissan (Ex. 12:8) 
462.Not to eat the flesh of the Paschal lamb raw or sodden (Ex.12:9) 
463.Not to leave any portion of the flesh of the Paschal sacrifice until the morning unconsumed (Ex. 12:10) 
464.Not to give the flesh of the Paschal lamb to an Israelite who had become an apostate (Ex. 12:43) 
465.Not to give flesh of the Paschal lamb to a stranger who lives among you to eat (Ex. 12:45) 
466.Not to take any of the flesh of the Paschal lamb from the company’s place of assembly (Ex. 12:46) 
467.Not to break a bone of the Paschal lamb (Ex. 12:46) 
468.That the uncircumcised shall not eat of the flesh of the Paschal lamb (Ex. 12:48) 
469.Not to slaughter the Paschal lamb while there is leaven in the home (Ex. 23:18; Ex. 24:25) 
470.Not to leave the part of the Paschal lamb that should be burnt on the altar until the morning, when it will no longer be fit to be burnt (Ex. 23:18; Ex. 24:25) 
471.Not to go up to the Sanctuary for the festival without bringing an offering (Ex. 23:15)
472.To bring the first fruits to the Sanctuary (Ex. 23:19)
473.That the flesh of a sin-offering and guilt-offering shall be eaten (Ex. 29:33)
474.That one not of the seed of Aaron, shall not eat the flesh of the holy sacrifices (Ex. 29:33)
475.To observe the procedure of the burnt-offering (Lev. 1:3)
476.To observe the procedure of the meal-offering (Lev. 2:1)
477.Not to offer up leaven or honey (Lev. 2:11) 
478.That every sacrifice be salted (Lev. 2:13) 
479.Not to offer up any offering unsalted (Lev. 2:13) 
480.That the Court of Judgment shall offer up a sacrifice if they have erred in a judicial pronouncement (Lev. 4:13) 
481.That an individual shall bring a sin-offering if he has sinned in error by committing a transgression (Lev. 4:27-28) 
482.To offer a sacrifice of varying value in accordance with one’s means (Lev. 5:7)
483.Not to sever completely the head of a fowl brought as a sin-offering (Lev. 5:8)
484.Not to put olive oil in a sin-offering made of flour (Lev. 5:11)
485.Not to put frankincense on a sin-offering made of flour (Lev.5:11) 
486.That an individual shall bring an offering if he is in doubt as to whether he has committed a sin for which one has to bring a sin-offering. (Lev.5:17-19) 
487.That the remainder of the meal offerings shall be eaten (Lev.6:9) 
488.Not to allow the remainder of the meal offerings to become leavened (Lev. 6:10) 
489.That the High Priest [Heb. Kohein] shall offer a meal offering daily (Lev. 6:13)
490.Not to eat of the meal offering brought by Aaron and his sons (Lev.6:16) 


491.To observe the procedure of the sin-offering (Lev. 6:18)
492.Not to eat of the flesh of sin offerings, the blood of which is brought within the Sanctuary and sprinkled towards the Veil (Lev. 6:23) 
493.To observe the procedure of the guilt-offering (Lev. 7:1)
494.To observe the procedure of the peace-offering (Lev. 7:11)
495.To burn meat of the holy sacrifice that has remained over (Lev.7:17) 
496.Not to eat of sacrifices that are eaten beyond the appointed time for eating them (Lev. 7:18) 
497.Not to eat of holy things that have become unclean (Lev. 7:19)
498.To burn meat of the holy sacrifice that has become unclean (Lev. 7:19)
499.That a person who is unclean shall not eat of things that are holy (Lev. 7:20)
500.A Priest’s daughter who profaned herself shall not eat of the holy things, neither of the heave offering nor of the breast, nor of the shoulder of peace offerings (Lev. 10:14, Lev. 22:12)
501.That a woman after childbirth shall bring an offering when she is clean (Lev. 12:6) 
502.That the leper shall bring a sacrifice after he is cleansed (Lev.14:10) 
503.That a man having an issue shall bring a sacrifice after he is cleansed of his issue (Lev. 15:13-15) 
504.That a woman having an issue shall bring a sacrifice after she is cleansed of her issue (Lev. 15:28-30) 


505.To observe, on Yom Kippur, the service appointed for that day, regarding the sacrifice, confessions, sending away of the scapegoat, etc. (Lev. 16:3-34) 
506.Not to slaughter beasts set apart for sacrifices outside (the Sanctuary) (Lev. 17:3-4) 
507.Not to eat flesh of a sacrifice that has been left over (beyond the time appointed for its consumption) (Lev. 19:8) 
508.Not to sanctify blemished cattle for sacrifice on the altar (Lev.22:20) This text prohibits such beasts being set apart for sacrifice on the altar 
509.That every animal offered up shall be without blemish (Lev.22:21) 
510.Not to inflict a blemish on cattle set apart for sacrifice (Lev.22:21) 
511.Not to slaughter blemished cattle as sacrifices (Lev. 22:22)
512.Not to burn the limbs of blemished cattle upon the altar (Lev.22:22) 
513.Not to sprinkle the blood of blemished cattle upon the altar (Lev. 22:24) 
514.Not to offer up a blemished beast that comes from non-Israelites (Lev. 22:25)
515.That sacrifices of cattle can only take place when they are at least eight days old (Lev. 22:27) 
516.Not to leave any flesh of the thanksgiving offering until the morning (Lev. 22:30)
517.To offer up the meal-offering of the Omer on the morrow after the first day of Passover, together with one lamb (Lev. 23:10)
518.Not to eat bread made of new grain before the Omer of barley has been offered up on the second day of Passover (Lev.23:14) 
519.Not to eat roasted grain of the new produce before that time (Lev. 23:14) 
520.Not to eat fresh ears of the new grain before that time (Lev.23:14) 
521.To bring on wave loaves of bread together with the sacrifices which are then offered up in connection with the loaves [Pentecost feast] (Lev. 23:17-20)


522.To offer up an additional sacrifice on Passover (Lev. 23:36)
523.That one who vows to the Lord the monetary value of a person shall pay the amount appointed in the Scriptural portion (Lev.27:2-8) 
524.If a beast is exchanged for one that had been set apart as an offering, both become sacred (Lev. 27:10) 
525.Not to exchange a beast set aside for sacrifice (Lev. 27:10)
526.That one who vows to the Lord the monetary value of an unclean beast shall pay its value (Lev. 27:11-13) 
527.That one who vows the value of a his house shall pay according to the appraisal of the Priest (Lev. 27:11-13) 
528.That one who sanctifies to the Lord a portion of his field shall pay according to the estimation appointed in the Scriptural portion (Lev. 27:16-24) 
529.Not to transfer a beast set apart for sacrifice from one class of sacrifices to another (Lev. 27:26) 
530.To decide in regard to dedicated property as to which is sacred to the Lord and which belongs to the Priest (Lev. 27:28)
531.Not to sell a field devoted to the Lord (Lev. 27:28) 
532.Not to redeem a field devoted to the Lord (Lev. 27:28)
533.To make confession before the Lord of any sin that one has committed, when bringing a sacrifice and at other times (Num.5:6-7) 
534.Not to put olive oil in the meal-offering of a woman suspected of adultery 

(Num. 5:15) 
535.Not to put frankincense on it (Num. 5:15) 
536.To offer up the regular sacrifices daily (two lambs as burnt offerings) (Num. 28:3)
537.To offer up an additional sacrifice every Sabbath (two lambs) (Num. 28:9)
538.To offer up an additional sacrifice every New Moon (Num. 28:11)
539.To bring an additional offering on the day of the first fruits [Pentecost] 

(Num. 28:26-27)
540.To offer up an additional sacrifice on [Feast of Trumpets] or Rosh Hashanah (Num.29:1-6) 
541.To offer up an additional sacrifice on the day of Atonement or Yom Kippur (Num. 29:7-8)
542.To offer up an additional sacrifice on Feast of Tabernacles [Heb. Sukkot] (Num. 29:12-34)
543.To offer up an additional offering on the eighth day after the feast of Tabernacles called (Heb. Shemini Atzeret), which is a festival by itself (Num. 29:35-38) This eighth day is an anticipation of the New Testament Sabbath which would be instituted on the first day of the week, which is also the eighth day.
544.To bring all offerings, whether obligatory or freewill, on the first festival after these were incurred (Deut. 12:5-6) 
545.Not to offer up sacrifices outside (the Sanctuary) (Deut. 12:13)
546.To offer all sacrifices in the Sanctuary (Deut. 12:14)
547.To redeem cattle set apart for sacrifices that contracted disqualifying blemishes, after which they may be eaten by anyone. (Deut. 12:15) 
548.Not to eat of the unblemished firstling outside Jerusalem (Deut.12:17) 
549.Not to eat the flesh of the burnt-offering (Deut. 12:17). This is a Prohibition applying to every trespasser, not to enjoy any of the holy things. 
550.That the sons of Aaron [i.e. his descendents] shall not eat the flesh of the sin-offering or guilt-offering outside the Courtyard (of the Sanctuary) (Deut.12:17) 
551.Not to eat of the flesh of the sacrifices that are holy in a minor degree, before the blood has been sprinkled (on the altar), (Deut. 12:17) 
552.That the Priest shall not eat the first-fruits before they are set down in the Courtyard (of the Sanctuary) (Deut. 12:17)
553.To take trouble to bring sacrifices to the Sanctuary from places outside the land of Israel (Deut. 12:26) 


554.Not to eat the flesh of beasts set apart as sacrifices, that have been rendered unfit to be offered up by deliberately inflicted blemish (Deut. 14:3) 
555.Not to do work with cattle set apart for sacrifice (Deut. 15:19)
556.Not to shear beasts set apart for sacrifice (Deut. 15:19)
557.Not to leave any portion of the festival offering brought on the fourteenth of Nissan unto the third day (Deut. 16:4) 
558.Not to offer up a beast that has a temporary blemish (Deut.17:1) 
559.Not to bring sacrifices out of the hire of a harlot or price of a dog (apparently a euphemism for sodomy) (Deut. 23:19) 
560.To read the portion prescribed on bringing the first fruits (Deut.26:5-10)
Ritual Purity and Impurity 
561.That eight species of creeping things defile by contact (Lev.11:29-30)
562.That foods become defiled by contact with unclean things (Lev.11:34) 
563.That anyone who touches the carcass of a beast that died of itself shall be unclean (Lev. 11:39) 
564.That a lying-in woman is unclean like a menstruating woman (in terms of uncleanness) (Lev. 12:2-5) 
565.That a leper is unclean and defiles (Lev. 13:2-46) 
566.That the leper shall be universally recognized as such by the prescribed marks So too, all other unclean persons should declare themselves as such (Lev. 13:45)
567.That a leprous garment is unclean and defiles (Lev. 13:47-49)
568.That a leprous house defiles (Lev. 14:34-46) 
569.That a man, having a running issue, defiles (Lev. 15:1-15)
570.That the seed of copulation defiles (Lev. 15:16) 
571.That purification from all kinds of defilement shall be effected by ceremonial washing (Lev. 15:16) 
572.That a menstruating woman is unclean and defiles others (Lev.15:19-24)
573.That a woman, having a running issue, defiles (Lev. 15:25-27)
574.To carry out the ordinance of the Red Heifer so that its ashes will always be available (Num. 19:9) 
575.That a corpse defiles (Num. 19:11-16) 
576.That the waters of separation defile one who is clean, and cleanse the unclean from pollution by a dead body (Num.19:19-22)
Lepers and Leprosy
577.Not to drove off the hair of the scall (Lev. 13:33) 
578.That the procedure of cleansing leprosy, whether of a man or of a house, takes place with cedar-wood, hyssop, scarlet thread, two birds, and running water (Lev. 14:1-7) 
579.That the leper shall shave all his hair (Lev. 14:9) 
580.Not to pluck out the marks of leprosy (Deut. 24:8)
The King
581.Not to curse a ruler, that is, the King in the land of Israel (Ex. 22:27) 
582.To appoint a king (Deut. 17:15) 
583.Not to appoint as ruler over Israel, one who comes from non-Israelites (Deut. 17:15) 
584.That the King shall not acquire an excessive number of horses (Deut. 17:16)
585.That the King shall not take an excessive number of wives (Deut. 17:17) 


586.That he shall not accumulate an excessive quantity of gold and silver (Deut. 17:17)
587.That the King shall write a scroll of the Torah for himself, in addition to the one that every person should write, so that he writes two scrolls (Deut. 17:18)
588.That a Nazarite shall not drink wine, or anything mixed with wine which tastes like wine; and even if the wine or the mixture has turned sour, it is prohibited to him (Num. 6:3) 
589.That he shall not eat fresh grapes (Num. 6:3) 
590.That he shall not eat dried grapes (raisins) (Num. 6:3)
591.That he shall not eat the kernels of the grapes (Num. 6:4)
592.That he shall not eat of the skins of the grapes (Num. 6:4)
593.That the Nazarite shall permit his hair to grow (Num. 6:5)
594.That the Nazarite shall not cut his hair (Num. 6:5) 
595.That he shall not enter any covered structure where there is a dead body (Num. 6:6) 
596.That a Nazarite shall not defile himself for any dead person (by being in the presence of the corpse) (Num. 6:7) 
597.That the Nazarite shall shave his hair when he brings his offerings at the completion of the period of his Nazariteship, or within that period if he has become defiled (Num. 6:9)
598.That those engaged in warfare shall not fear their enemies nor be panic-stricken by them during battle (Deut. 3:22, 7:21,20:3) 
599.To anoint a special Priest (to speak to the soldiers) in a war (Deut. 20:2) This is today’s equivalent to a military chaplain.
600.In a permissive war (as distinguished from obligatory ones), to observe the procedure prescribed in the Torah (Deut. 20:10)
601.Not to keep alive any individual of the seven Canaanite nations (Deut. 20:16)
602.To exterminate the seven Canaanite nations from the land of Israel (Deut. 20:17)
603.Not to destroy fruit trees (wantonly or in warfare) (Deut.20:19-20) 
604.To deal with a beautiful woman taken captive in war in the manner prescribed in the Torah (Deut. 21:10-14) 
605.Not to sell a beautiful woman, (taken captive in war) (Deut.21:14) 
606.Not to degrade a beautiful woman (taken captive in war) to the condition of a bondwoman (Deut. 21:14) 
607.Not to offer peace to the Ammonites and the Moabites before waging war on them, as should be done to other nations (Deut.23:7) 
608.That anyone who is unclean shall not enter the Camp of the Levites (Deut. 23:11) 
609.To have a place outside the camp for sanitary purposes (Deut.23:13) 
610.To keep that place sanitary (Deut. 23:14-15) 
611.Always to remember what Amalek did (Deut. 25:17)
612.That the evil done to us by Amalek shall not be forgotten (Deut.25:19) 
613.To destroy the seed of Amalek (Deut. 25:19)  


The Pentateuch is simply the first 5 books of the Bible, often referred to as the Books of Moses.

Genesis – Exodus – Leviticus – Numbers – Deuteronomy