The Contradictions Of Paul From Tarsus With Jesus-Yeshua and YahuEH-YHVH

  1. The Law Continues

Yeshua YES

Matthew 5:18

For assuredly, I say to you, till heaven and earth pass away, one jot or one tittle will by no means pass from the law till all is fulfilled


Exodus 12:24

“And you shall observe this event as an ordinance for you and your children forever.

Paul NO

Galatians 5:18

But if you are led by the Spirit, you are not under the law.

Galatians 3:23-23

Before the coming of this faith, we were held in custody under the law, locked up until the faith that was to come would be revealed.

Romans 10: 4

For Christ is the end of the law, that everyone who has faith may be justified.

Romans 6:14

For sin shall not have dominion over you: for ye are not under the law, but under grace.

#2 Circumcision is Forever

Yeshua Yes

Matthew 23:2-3

“The scribes and the Pharisees sit on Moses’ seat, 3 so do and observe whatever they tell you


Ezekiel 44:9

Future Prophecy

“Thus, says the Lord God: No foreigner, uncircumcised in heart and flesh, of all the foreigners who are among the people of Israel, shall enter my sanctuary.

Paul NO

Galatians 5:2

Look: I, Paul, say to you that if you accept circumcision, Christ will be of no advantage to you.

Galatians 2:3-5

3 But even Titus, who was with me, was not forced to be circumcised, though he was a Greek. 4 Yet because of false brothers secretly brought in—who slipped in to spy out our freedom that we have in Christ Jesus, so that they might bring us into slavery— 5 to them we did not yield in submission even for a moment, so that the truth of the gospel might be preserved for you.

#3 Sabbath Should Still Be Kept

Yeshua Yes

Matthew 5:18

For assuredly, I say to you, till heaven and earth pass away, one jot or one tittle will by no means pass from the law till all is fulfilled.


Exodus 31:16

So the sons of Israel shall observe the sabbath, to celebrate the sabbath throughout their generations as a perpetual covenant.’ 17″It is a sign between Me and the sons of Israel forever

Paul NO

Colossians 2:16-17

So, let no one judge you in food or in drink, or regarding a festival or a new moon or sabbaths, 17 which are a shadow of things to come, but the substance is of Christ.

Romans 14:5

One-person esteems one day as better than another, while another esteems all days alike. Each one should be fully convinced in his own mind.

Ephesians 2:14-15

14 For he himself is our peace, who has made us both one and has broken down in his flesh the dividing wall of hostility 15 by abolishing the law of commandments expressed in ordinances, that he might create in himself one new man in place of the two, so making peace

#4 Lying is Ok

Yeshua NO

Matthew 5:18

For assuredly, I say to you, till heaven and earth pass away, one jot or one tittle will by no means pass from the law till all is fulfilled.


Leviticus 19:11

“You shall not steal; you shall not deal falsely; you shall not lie to one another.

Paul YES

Romans 3:7

For if the truth of God hath more abounded through my lie unto his glory; why yet am I also judged as a sinner?

#5 Eat Anything

Yeshua NO

Revelation 2: 14, 16

14 But I have a few things against you: you have some there who hold the teaching of Balaam, who taught Balak to put a stumbling block before the sons of Israel, so that they might eat food sacrificed to idols and practice sexual immorality. 16 Therefore repent. If not, I will come to you soon and war against them with the sword of my mouth


Leviticus 11: 1-46

4 Nevertheless, among those that chew the cud or part the hoof, you shall not eat these: The camel, because it chews the cud but does not part the hoof, is unclean to you. 5 And the rock badger, because it chews the cud but does not part the hoof, is unclean to you. 6 And the hare, because it chews the cud but does not part the hoof, is unclean to you. 7 And the pig, because it parts the hoof and is cloven-footed but does not chew the cud, is unclean to you. 8 You shall not eat any of their flesh, and you shall not touch their carcasses; they are unclean to you.

Paul YES

Romans 14:14

I know and am persuaded in the Master Yeshua that nothing is unclean in itself, but it is unclean for anyone who thinks it unclean

#6 Feasts Should Still Be Kept

Yeshua Yes

Matthew 5:18

For assuredly, I say to you, till heaven and earth pass away, one jot or one tittle will by no means pass from the law till all is fulfilled.


Exodus 12:24

And ye shall observe this thing for an ordinance to thee and to thy sons forever

Paul NO

Colossians 2:16-17

16 So let no one judge you in food or in drink, or regarding a festival or a new moon or sabbaths, 17 which are a shadow of things to come, but the substance is of Christ.

#7 Pharisees Followed the Law

Yeshua NO

Matthew 23:2-3

“The scribes and the Pharisees sit on Moses’ seat, 3 so do and observe whatever they tell you, but not the works they do. For they preach, but do not practice

Paul YES

Philippians 3:5-6

circumcised on the eighth day, of the people of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew of Hebrews; as to the law, a Pharisee; 6 as to zeal, a persecutor of the church; as to righteousness under the law, blameless.

#8 Salvation Is by Faith, Repentance & Obeying

Yeshua YES

Revelation 14:12

Here is the patience of the saints: here are they that keep the commandments of God, and the faith of Jesus.

Matthew 7: 23

And then I will declare to them, ‘I never knew you; depart from Me, you who practice lawlessness!’


Psalm 32:1–2

Blessed is the one whose transgression is forgiven, whose sin is covered.2 Blessed is the man against whom the Lord counts no iniquity,

and in whose spirit there is no deceit.

Paul NO

Ephesians 2:8-9

For by grace you have been saved through faith. And this is not your own doing; it is the gift of God, 9 not a result of works, so that no one may boast.

Romans 3:28

“Therefore we conclude that a man is justified by faith without the deeds (works) of the law.”

Romans 10: 4

For Christ is the end of the law, that everyone who has faith may be justified.

#9 Apostles Commanded to teach the Commandments

Yeshua YES

Matthew 19:17

And he said to him, why call you me good? there is none good but one, that is, God: but if you will enter into life, keep the commandments.

Paul No

Ephesians 2:15

by abolishing in His flesh the law of commandments and decrees. He did this to create in Himself one new man out of the two, thus making peace

2 Corinthians 5:16-19

From now on, therefore, we regard no one according to the flesh. Even though we once regarded Christ according to the flesh, we regard him thus no longer. 17 Therefore, if anyone is in Christ, he is a new creation. The old has passed away; behold, the new has come. 18 All this is from God, who through Christ reconciled us to himself and gave us the ministry of reconciliation; 19 that is, in Christ God was reconciling the world to himself, not counting their trespasses against them, and entrusting to us the message of reconciliation

#10 Church Pastors to be Paid

Yeshua NO

Matthew 10: 7-8

And preach as you go, saying, `The kingdom of heaven is at hand.’ [8] Heal the sick, raise the dead, cleanse lepers, cast out demons. You received without paying, give without pay.


1 Corinthians 9:14

In the same way, the Lord commanded that those who proclaim the gospel should get their living by the gospel.

1Timothy 5:17-18

Let the elders who rule well be considered worthy of double honor, especially those who labor in preaching and teaching;

[18] for the scripture says, “You shall not muzzle an ox when it is treading out the grain,” and, “The laborer deserves his wages.

1 Corinthians 9:11-12

If we have sown spiritual good among you, is it too much if we reap your material benefits?

12If others share this rightful claim upon you, do not we still more?

#11 There are Only 12 Apostles

Yeshua YES

Acts 1:21-26, excerpts

“‘Therefore, it is necessary that of the men who have accompanied us all the time that the Lord Jesus went in and out among us–beginning with the baptism of John until the day that He was taken up from us–one of these must become a witness with us of His resurrection.’ So, they put forward two men . . . and the lot fell to Matthias; and he was added to the eleven apostles”

Paul NO

2 Corinthians 11:5

Indeed, I consider that I am not in the least inferior to these super-apostles.

Galatians 1:1

Paul, an apostle—not from men nor through man, but through Jesus Christ and God the Father, who raised him from the dead 2 and all the brothers who are with me

#12 Yahweh Made the Law and Delivered it Himself


Exodus 31:18

And he gave to Moses, when he had finished speaking with him on Mount Sinai, the two tablets of the testimony, tablets of stone, written with the finger of God.

Paul NO

Galatians 3:19

Why then the law? It was added because of transgressions, until the offspring should come to whom the promise had been made, and it was put in place through angels by an intermediary

#13 Call No Man Father

Yeshua YES

Matthew 23:9

And call no man your father upon the earth: for one is your Father, which is in heaven.

Paul NO

1 Corinthians 4:15

For though you have countless guides in Christ, you do not have many fathers. For I became your father in Christ Jesus through the gospel.

#14 We are begotten from above

Yeshua YES

John.3: 3,6-7

Truly, truly, I say to you, unless one is begotten from above, he cannot see the kingdom of God. [6] That which is begotten of the flesh is flesh, and that which is begotten of the Spirit is spirit.

[7] Do not marvel that I said to you, `You must be begotten from above.

Paul NO

Romans 8:23

and not only the creation, but we ourselves, who have the first fruits of the Spirit, groan inwardly as we wait for adoption as sons, the redemption of our bodies.

Galatians 4: 5

to redeem those who were under the law, so that we might receive adoption as sons.

#15 No Hierarchy of Assembly

Yeshua YES

Matthew 23:8

But do not be called Rabbi (Teacher); for One is your Teacher, and you are all [equally] brothers.

John.10: 16

And I have other sheep, that are not of this fold; I must bring them also, and they will heed my voice. So there shall be one flock, one shepherd.

Paul NO

Ephesians 4:11

And he gave some, apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and some, pastors and teachers

1 Corinthians 12: 28

And God has appointed in the church first apostles, second prophets, third, teachers

16 Nations of The World Are Under Satan

Yeshua YES

Luke 4:5-8

5 The devil led him up to a high place and showed him in an instant all the kingdoms of the world. 6 And he said to him, “I will give you all their authority and splendor; it has been given to me, and I can give it to anyone I want to. 7 If you worship me, it will all be yours.” 8 Jesus answered, “It is written: ‘Worship the Lord your God and serve him only.”


Hosea 8:4

They set up kings without my consent; they choose princes without my approval. With their silver and gold, they make idols for themselves to their own destruction.


Romans 13:1-5

Let everyone be subject to the governing authorities, for there is no authority except that which God has established. The authorities that exist have been established by God. 2 Consequently, whoever rebels against the authority is rebelling against what God has instituted, and those who do so will bring judgment on themselves. 3 For rulers hold no terror for those who do right, but for those who do wrong. Do you want to be free from fear of the one in authority? Then do what is right and you will be commended. 4 For the one in authority is God’s servant for your good. But if you do wrong, be afraid, for rulers do not bear the sword for no reason. They are God’s servants, agents of wrath to bring punishment on the wrongdoer. 5 Therefore, it is necessary to submit to the authorities, not only because of possible punishment but also as a matter of conscience.

17 God is God of Living Not Dead

Yeshua NO

Luke 20:38

“God is not the God of the dead but the living.”

Paul Yes

Romans 14:9

Christ is the “Lord of the dead and the living.”

#18 Flesh in Heaven

Yeshua YES

Mark 12:25

For when they rise from the dead, they neither marry nor are given in marriage, but are like angels in heaven.


Job 19:25-26:

“For I know that my Redeemer lives, and at the last he will stand upon the earth. And after my skin has been thus destroyed, yet in my flesh I shall see God.”

Paul NO

1 Corinthians 15:44

It is sown a natural body, it is raised a spiritual body. There is a natural body, and there is a spiritual body

1 Corinthians 15:50

“I declare to you, brothers and sisters, that flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God, nor does the perishable inherit the imperishable.”

1 Corinthians 15:50-54

50 I tell you this, brothers: flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God, nor does the perishable inherit the imperishable. 51 Behold! I tell you a mystery. We shall not all sleep, but we shall all be changed, 52 in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet. For the trumpet will sound, and the dead will be raised imperishable, and we shall be changed. 53 For this perishable body must put on the imperishable, and this mortal body must put on immortality. 54 When the perishable puts on the imperishable, and the mortal puts on immortality, then shall come to pass the saying that is written: “Death is swallowed up in victory.”

#19 Receiving Mercy by Being Merciful

Yeshua YES

Matthew 5: 7

Blessed are the merciful, for they shall obtain mercy.

Paul NO

Romans 9: 15-16, 18

For he says to Moses, “I will have mercy on whom I have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I have compassion.” 16 So it depends not upon man’s will or exertion, but upon God’s mercy. [18] So then he has mercy upon whomever he wills, and he hardens the heart of whomever he wills.

#20 Apostle to Baptize Believers

Yeshua YES

Matthew 28:19

Go ye therefore, and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them

Paul NO

1 Corinthians 1:17

For Christ sent me not to baptize, but to preach the gospel: not in wisdom of words, lest the cross of Christ should be made void.

#21 A Call Is Revocable

Yeshua YES

Matthew 22:14

‘many are called, but few are chosen

Paul NO

Romans 9: 29

The gifts and the calling of God are irrevocable’

#22 Justification of the Ungodly


Exodus 23:7

“I will not justify the ungodly.”

Proverbs 17:15

“He that justifieth the ungodly …[is] an abomination to Yahweh.”

Paul YES

Romans 4:5

“But to him that worketh not, but believeth on him that justifieth the ungodly, his faith is counted for righteousness.

#23 Prayer in Public

Yeshua NO

Matthew 6:5-6

“And when you pray, you must not be like the hypocrites. For they love to stand and pray in the synagogues and at the street corners, that they may be seen by others. Truly, I say to you, they have received their reward. 6 But when you pray, go into your room and shut the door and pray to your Father who is in secret. And your Father who sees in secret will reward you.

Paul YES

1 Timothy 2:8

I desire then that in every place the men should pray, lifting holy hands without anger or quarreling

#24 Call No Man Fool

Yeshua YES

Mathew 5:22

“Whosoever shall say, Thou fool, shall be in danger of hell fire”

Paul NO

I Corinthians 3:18

If you think you are wise by this world’s standards, you will have to become a fool so you can become wise by God’s standards.”

Romans 1:22

Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools,

#25 Some are Righteous

Yeshua YES

Matthew 25:37

Then the righteous will answer him, saying, ‘Lord

Matthew 13:17

  • For verily I say unto you, That many prophets and righteous men have desired to see those things which ye see, and have not seen them; and to hear those things which ye hear, and have not heard them


Genesis 6:9

These are the generations of Noah. Noah was a righteous man, blameless in his generation. Noah walked with God.

Paul NO

Romans 3:19 –

Now we know that what things so ever the law says, it says to them who are under the law: that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world may become guilty before God. 20 Therefore by the deeds of the law there shall no flesh be justified in his sight: for by the law is the knowledge of sin.

26 Original Sin

Yeshua NO

Mark 10:13-16

People were bringing little children to Jesus for him to place his hands on them, but the disciples rebuked them. 14 When Jesus saw this, he was indignant. He said to them, “Let the little children come to me, and do not hinder them, for the kingdom of God belongs to such as these. 15 Truly I tell you, anyone who will not receive the kingdom of God like a little child will never enter it.” 16 And he took the children in his arms, placed his hands on them and blessed them.

Paul YES

Romans 5:12-14

Therefore, just as sin came into the world through one man, and death through sin, and so death spread to all men[a] because all sinned— 13 for sin indeed was in the world before the law was given, but sin is not counted where there is no law. 14 Yet death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over those whose sinning was not like the transgression of Adam, who was a type of the one who was to come.

#27 Truth Comes from YHVH’s Word

Yeshua YES

John.17:14, 17

I have given them thy word;

17 Sanctify them in the truth; thy word is truth.


Psalm 119:160

The sum of Your word is truth, and every one of Your righteous ordinances is everlasting.

Paul NO

1 Corinthians 2:13

And we impart this in words not taught by human wisdom but taught by the Spirit, interpreting spiritual truths to those who possess the Spirit.

Galatians 1:12

For I did not receive it from man, nor was I taught it, but it came through a revelation of Jesus Christ.

28 Eternal Security


Matthew 7:19

“Every tree that lacks good fruit is cut down and thrown in the fire.”

Paul YES

Romans 8:1

There is therefore now no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus.

29 Celibacy Is an Option

Yeshua YES

Matthew 19:12

For there are eunuchs who have been so from birth, and there are eunuchs who have been made eunuchs by men, and there are eunuchs who have made themselves eunuchs for the sake of the kingdom of heaven. Let the one who is able to receive this receive it.”

Paul NO

1 Cor. 10:27-28:

“Are you bound to a wife? Do not seek to be free. Are you free from a wife? Do not seek marriage. But if you marry, you do not sin, and if a girl marries she does not sin.”

30 God Lives in Temples Made of Human Hands

Yeshua YES

Matthew 23:21

And anyone who swears by the temple swears by it and by the one who dwells in it.

Paul NO

Acts 17:24

The God who made the world and everything in it, being Lord of heaven and earth, does not live in temples made by man

#31 Justification by Works or the Law

Yeshua YES

Revelation 14:12

Here is the patience of the saints: here are they that keep the commandments of God, and the faith of Jesus.


Galatians 2:16

yet we know that a person is not justified[a] by works of the law but through faith in Jesus Christ, so we also have believed in Christ Jesus, in order to be justified by faith in Christ and not by works of the law, because by works of the law no one will be justified.

Galatians 3:10

The Righteous Shall Live by Faith

10 For all who rely on works of the law are under a curse; for it is written, “Cursed be everyone who does not abide by all things written in the Book of the Law, and do them.”

The New Testament Altered To Support The Trinity and Incarnation Doctrines

In the attempt to turn יהוה the ONE and ONLY Elohim into a pagan trinity, the New Testament has literally been altered to add phrases that are not inspired words of יהוה. I want to cover just a few of them here.

1 John 5:7 & 8

For there are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one. And there are three that bear witness in earth, the Spirit, and the water, and the blood: and these three agree in one (KJV).

Some English versions have a shorter rendition of 1 John 5:7 and 8 than the KJV quoted above. The King James Version has words that support the Trinity that most modern versions do not have. How can this be? The reason that there are different translations of this verse leaving out the passage I have in red above is that some Greek texts contain an addition that was not original. That addition was placed into some English versions, such as the KJV (the words added to some Greek texts are underlined in the quotation above). The note in the NIV Study Bible, which is well known for its ardent belief in the Trinity, even admits it, “The addition is not found in any Greek manuscript or NT translation prior to the 16th century.”

Most modern versions are translated from Greek texts without the addition. We will quote the NIV:

“For there are three that testify: the Spirit, the water and the blood; and the three are in agreement.” We agree with the textual scholars and conclude from the evidence of the Greek texts that the statement that the Father, the Word and the Holy Spirit are “one” was added to the Word of God by men, and thus has no weight of truth.”

Wow. The entire doctrine of the pagan Trinity begins to implode upon true inspection of The Word of יהוה. There are many Trinitarian scholars who freely admit that the Greek text from which the KJV is translated was adjusted in this verse to support the Trinity. The Greek scholar A. T. Robertson, author of the unparalleled work, A Grammar of the Greek New Testament in Light of Historical Research, and the multi-volumed Word Pictures in the New Testament, writes:

At this point [1 John 5:7] the Latin Vulgate gives the words in the Textus Receptus, found in no Greek Manuscript. Save two late cursives the Vatican Library of the fifteenth century, of the sixteenth century in Trinity College, Dublin. Jerome did not have it. Erasmus did not have it in his first edition, but rashly offered to insert it if a single Greek Manuscript actually had it, and (those that did have it) was produced with the insertion, as if made to order (to promote the pagan Trinity). Some Latin (pagan) scribe caught up Cyprian’s exegesis and wrote it on the margin of his text, and so it got into the Vulgate and finally into the Textus Receptus by the stupidity of Erasmus.”

Robertson shows how this addition entered the text. It was a marginal note written by uninspired Latin pagans trying to translate the Word of יהוה. They literally “made to order” The Trinity in the text. Since all texts were hand-copied, when a scribe, copying a text, accidentally left a word or sentence out of his copy, he would place it in the margin in hopes that the next scribe would copy it back into the text. Unfortunately, scribes occasionally did not make the distinction between what a previous scribe had left out of the last copy and wrote in the margin, and marginal notes that another scribe had written in the margin to help him understand the text. Therefore, some marginal notes got copied into the text as Scripture. Usually these additions are easy to spot because the “new” text will differ from all the other texts. However, there are times when people adore their theology more than the God-breathed original, and they fight for the man-made addition as if it were the original words of יהוה. This has been the case with 1 John 5:7 and 8, and we applaud the honesty of the translators of modern versions who have left it out of their translations. Now we need to erase the Trinity from our vocabulary and more importantly from our minds.

With the spurious addition taken out, it is clear that there is no reference to the Trinity in 1 John 5:7 and 8.

1 John 5:7 & 8

For there are three that bear record in heaven: the spirit, and the water, and the blood: and these three agree in one that יהושע is the son of יהוה.

I will cover these 3 witnesses of יהוה that יהושע is His son in great detail in this book. Yet another passage of scripture that has been altered to promote the pagan Trinity by Hellenized translators is found in the Great Commission itself!

Matthew 28:18-19

18 And יהושע came and spoke to them, saying, “All authority has been given to Me in heaven and on earth. 19 Go therefore and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit

The words were added to the original text again by scribes copying marginal notes. They believed in the pagan Trinity and chose to altar the texts. These words are not the words of יהושע. Below is the actual true translation:

Matthew 28:18-19

18 And יהושע came and spoke to them, saying, “All authority has been given to Me in heaven and on earth. 19 Go therefore and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them in my name.

What יהושע was saying is to make disciples of The Yahushaic Covenant or the covenant that is in “my name’.

According to the Biblical historian Dr. C. R. Gregory:

“The Greek manuscripts of the text of the New Testament were often altered by the scribes, who put into them the readings which were familiar to them, and which they held to be the right readings.”

But keep in mind, these were GREEK and LATIN scribes who were attempting to Hellenize the scriptures. This is the case in Matthew. After the council of Nicea all original manuscripts were burned to try and hide these abominations. F.C. Conybeare further elaborated:

“In the only codices which would be even likely to preserve an older reading, namely the Sinaitic Syriac and the oldest Latin Manuscript, the pages are gone which contained the end of Matthew.”

The reason the end of Matthew is “gone” is because the pagan scribes of Christianity changed the end of Matthew and did not want evidence to the contrary. In two controversial works written in Conybeare’s extreme old age, and entitled, the one ‘Against Marcellus of Ancyra,’ and the other ‘About the Theology of the Church,’ he used the common reading. One other writing of his also contains it, namely a letter written after the Council of Nicea was over, to his seer of Caesurae.

In his Textual Criticism of the New Testament Conybeare wrote:

“It is clear therefore, that of the manuscripts which Eusebius inherited from his predecessor, Pamphilus, at Caesurae in Palestine, some at least preserved the original reading, in which there was no mention either of baptism or of Father, Son and Holy Ghost. It has been conjectured by Dr. David-son, Dr. Martineau, by the Dean of Westminster, and by Prof. Harnack (to mention but a few names of the many) that here the received text could not contain the very words of Jesus – this was long before anyone except Dr. Burgon, who kept the discovery to himself, had noticed the Eusebian form of the reading.”

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics states:

The facts are, in summary, that Eusebius quotes Matthew 28:19 twenty-one times, either omitting everything between ‘nations’ and ‘teaching,’ or in the form ‘make disciples of all the nations in my name,’ the latter form being the more frequent.

Smith’s Dictionary of the Bible, Vol. I, page 352. :

The anonymous author of De Rebaptismate in the third century so understood them, and dwells at length on ‘the power of the name of Jesus invoked upon a man by Baptism’.

In Origen’s works, as preserved in the Greek, the first part of the verse is cited three times, but his citation always stops short at the words ‘the nations’; and that in itself suggests that his text has been censored, and the words which followed, ‘in my name’, struck out. – Conybeare

According to Dr. Thomas, in Revealed Mystery Article XLIV:

There is but one way for a believer of ‘the things concerning the Kingdom of God, and the name of Jesus Christ’ to put Him on, or to be invested with His name, and that is, by immersion into His name. Baptism is for this specific purpose.” “As for its significance, baptism is linked inseparably with the death of Christ. It is the means of the believer’s identification with the Lord’s death. – God’s Way, pg. 190. The Father did not die, nor the Holy Spirit. As the scripture says, “buried with Him (Jesus) in baptism,” not with the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. (Romans 6:3-5)

Entire paragraphs were added to scripture

Before I leave this section I want to impress on everyone just how badly the Scriptures were mishandled and passed down to us. A prime example (of far too many examples that I could give) is found in the Gospel of John. Interestingly enough the passage in question has become one of the most famous stories about “Jesus”. We all know the story well, it is where “Jesus” is confronted by the Scribes and Pharisees with a woman caught in adultery. They lay a trap for “Jesus” (I say Jesus because this event never happen in the life of יהושע). They ask “Jesus” what they should do with her. On the one hand if “Jesus” says to let her go he will be accused of violating The Law of יהוה that demands she be stoned to death. On the other hand if “Jesus” says to stone her in accordance with The Law he will be accused of violating his own teachings of love. In an amazing twist “Jesus” uses his whit to get not only himself out of the trap but save the life of the woman. Quoting from the book “Misquoting Jesus” by Bart Ehrman renowned Bible Scholar, Textual Critic, and Chairman of the Department of Religious Studies at The University of North Carolina on pages 64:

“Despite the brilliance of the story and the captivating qualities and its inherent intrigue… there is one other enormous problem it (the story of the adulterous woman) poses. As it turns out it has been proven by all scholars not to be in the original Gospel of John. In fact it was not originally part of any of the Gospels. It was added by later scribes.”

Yet this story was never removed and remains in your Bible. Satan has twisted the scriptures and elevated this story to one of the most popular “tales about Jesus”. It is used to justify that “Jesus abolished The Law” and established a new “law” of love outside of keeping the Commandments of יהוה. As I stated there are many examples of the New Testament being altered by pagan scribes to build false doctrines into the text. I suggest the book Misquoting Jesus by the textual critic Bart Ehrman. This book demonstrates that in almost every “doctrinal” addition to the NT; words were added or deleted to establish the doctrine of The Trinity, incarnation, and the abolishment of The Law.

From The Yahushaic Covenant

The New Testament Canon In The First Three Centuries From The Encyclopedia Britannica 1903

The first Christians relied on the Old Testament as their chief religious book. To them it was of divine origin and authority The New Testament writings came into gradual use by the side of the older Jewish documents, according to the times in which they appeared and the reouted names of the authors.

When Marcion came from Pontus to Rome (144 A.D.),” he brought with him a Scripture-collection consisting of ten Pauline epistles. Those addressed to Timothy and Titus, with the epistle to the Hebrews, were not in it. The gospel of Marcion was Luke’s in an altered state. From this and other facts we conclude that external parties were the first who carried out the idea of collecting Christian writings, and of putting them either beside or over against the sacred books of the Old Testament, in support of their systems As to Basilides (125 A.D.), his supposed quotations from the New Testament in Hippolytus are too pre carious to be trusted.8 It is inferred from statements in Origen and Jerome that he had a gospel of his own somewhat like Luke’s, but extra-canonical. His son Isidore and succeeding disciples used Matthew’s gospel. Jerome says that Marcion and Basilides denied the Pauline author ship of the epistle to the Hebrews and the pastoral ones.8 It is also doubtful whether Valentinus’s (140-166) alleged citations from the New Testament can be relied upon. The passages of this kind ascribed to him by the fathers belong in a great measure to his disciples; and Heurici has not proved his position that he used John’s gospel. But his followers, including Ptolemy (180 A.D.) and Heracleon (185-200), quote the gospels and other portions of the New Testament. From Hippolytus’s account of the Ophites, Peratse, and Sethians, we infer that the Christian writings were much employed by them. An apocryphal work they rarely cite. More than 160 citations from the New Testament have been gathered out of their writings.4 We may admit that these Ophites and Peratse were of early origin, the former being the oldest known of- the Gnostic parties; but there is no proof that the acquaintance with the New Testament which Hippolytus attributes to them belongs to the first rather than the second half of the 2nd century. The early existence of the sect does not show an early citation of the Christian books by it, especially of John’s gospel; unless its primary were its last stage. Later and earlier Ophites are not distinguished in the Philosophumena. Hence there is a presumption that the author had the former in view, which is favoured by no mention of them occurring in the ” Advertsus omues Hsereses” usually appended to Tertullian’s Prascriptiones HoSreticorum, and by Irenseus’s derivation of their heresy from that of Valentinus. The latter father does not even speak of the Peratae. Clement of Alexandria is the first who alludes to them. The early heretics were desirous of confirming their peculiar opinions by the writings current among catholic Christians, so that the formation of a canon

‘ Davidson’s Introduction to the Study of the Ar. Talam., vol. ii. p. 388. * JExphnaiio in Bpist. ad TUum, voL iv. p. 407, ed. Benedict. 4 Sea the Indexes to Dnncker and Schneidewin’s edition.

by them began soon after the commencement of the 2d century, tad continued till the end of it, contemporaneously with the development of a catholic church and its necessary adjunct a catholic canon. No New Testament canon, except a partial and unauthoritative one, existed till the latter half of the ,2d century, that is, till the idea of a catholic church began to be entertained. The Ebionites or Jewish Christians had their favorite gospels and Acts. The gospel of Matthew was highly prized by them, existing as it did in various recensions. Other documents, such as the Revelation of John, and the Preaching of Peter, (a Jewish-Christian history subsequently re-written and employed in the Clementine Recognitions and Homilies) were also in esteem. Even so late as 170-175, Hegesippus, a Jewish Christian, used the gospel according to the Hebrews and despised Paul’s writings, in conformity with the leading principle of the party to which he belonged, viz., the identity of Jesus’s words with the Old Testament. The Clementine Homilies (161-180) used the four canonical gospels, even the fourth, which they assign to the apostle John. The gospel according to the Egyptians was also employed. Paul’s epistles were rejected, of course, as well as the Acts; since the apostle of the Gentiles was pointed at in Simon Magus, whom Peter refutes. It is, therefore, obvious that a collection of the New Testament writings could make little progress among the Ebionites of the 2d century. Their reverence for the Law and the Prophets hindered another canon. Among the Gentile Christians the formation of a canon took place more rapidly, though Judaic influences retarded it even there. After Paul’s epistles were interchanged-between churches a few of them would soon be put together. A collection of this kind is implied in 2 Peter iii. 16

The apostolic fathers quote from the Old Testament, to them an inspired and sacred thing. They have scarcely any express citations from the Now Testament. Allusions occur, especially to the epistles. The letter of Clement to the Corinthians (about 120) does not use written gospels, though it presupposes an acquaintance with the epistles to the Romans, Corinthians, and Hebrews. Where ” Scripture” is cited, or the expression “it is written” occurs, the Old Testament is meant.

Hermas (about 130) seems to have used the epistles to the Ephesians and Hebrews, those of James and 1 Peter, perhaps, too, the Acts; but there is great uncertainty about the matter, and he has no express quotation from any part of the New Testament. The writer often alludes to words of Jesus found in Matthew’s gospel, so that he may have been acquainted with it.

Barnabas (about 119) has but one quotation from the New Testament, if, indeed, it be such. Apparently, Matthew xx. I6 is introduced by “it is written,” showing that the gospel was considered Scripture. This is the earliest trace of canonical authority being transferred from the Old Testament to Christian writings.

As far as we can judge, from Eusebius’s account of Papias’ (t 163), that writer knew nothing of a New Testament canon. He speaks of Matthew and Mark; but whether he had their present gospels is uncertain. According to Andreas of Caesarea he was acquainted with the Apocalypse of John, while Eusebius testifies to his knowledge of 1 Peter and 1 John. But he seems to have had no conception of canonical authority attaching to any part of the New Testament.

Traces of later ideas about the canonicity of the New Testament appear in the shorter Greek recension of the seven Ignatian epistles (about 175). There “the Gospel” and ” the Epistles” are recognized as the constituents of the book.’ The writer also used the Gospel according to the Hebrews, for there is a quotation from it in the epistle to the Smyrnians.7 The second part of the collection seems to have wanted the epistle to the Ephesians.”

Justin Martyr (150 A.D.) knew some of the’ synoptic gospels— the first and third. The evidence of his acquaintance with Mark’s is but small. His knowledge of the fourth u denied by many, and zealously defended by others. Thoma finds proof that Justin used

‘ Episl. ad Philadelph., ch. 5. See Hefele’s note on the passage. The other well-known passage in chapter viii. is too uncertain in read ing and meaning to be adduced hero. 7 Chapter iii.

It freely as a textbook of gnosis, without recognizing it as the historical work of an apostle.’ It is pretty certain that he employed an extra-canonical gospel, perhaps the so-called gospel of the Hebrews He had also the older Acts of Pilate. Paul’s epistles are never mentioned, though he doubtless knew them., Having little sympathy with Paulinism he attached his belief to the primitive apostles. The Apocalypse, 1 Peter, and 1 John he esteemed highly; the epistle to the Hebrews and the Acts he treated in the same way as the Pauline writings. Justin’s canon, as far as divine authority and inspiration are concerned, was the Old Testament. He was merely on the threshold of a divine canon made up of primitive Christian writings, attaching no exclusive sanctity to those he used, because they were not to him the only source of doc trine. Even of the Apocalypse he says, “A man among ns named John, &c, wrote it.'” In his time none of the gospels had been canonized, not even the synoptists, if, indeed, he knew them all. Oral tradition was the chief fountain of Christian knowledge, as it hid been for a century. In his opinion this tradition was embodied in writing; but the documents in which he looked for all that related to Christ were not the gospels alone. Others he used freely, not looking upon any as inspired. Though lessons out of the gospels (some of our present ones and others), as also out of the prophets, were read in assemblies on the first day of the week,’ the act of converting the Christian writings into Scripture was posterior; for the mere reading of a gospel in churches on Sunday does not prove that it was considered divinely authoritative; and the use of the epistles, which formed the second and less valued part of the collection, must still have been limited.

Justin’s disciple, Tatian (160-180), who wrote an address to the Greeks, quotes the beginning of John’s gospel; and his Diatessaron or Harmony probably included selections from the four canonical ones; but too little is known of it to enable us to speak with certainty. Doubtless he was acquainted with Faul’s writings, as he quotes statements contained in them. He seems, however, to have rejected several of his epistles, probably 1 and 2 Timothy.4

In Polycarp’s epistle (150-166) there are reminiscences of the synoptic gospels; and most of Paul’s epistles as well as 1 Peter were used by the writer. But the idea of canonical authority, or a peculiar inspiration belonging to these writings, is absent.

Athenagoras of Athens wrote an apology addressed to Marcus Aurelius (176). In it he uses written and unwritten tradition, testing all by the Old Testament, which was his only authoritative canon. He makes no reference to the Christian documents, but adduces words of Jesus with the verb “he says.” His treatise on t lie resurrection appeals to a passage in one of Paul’s epistles.’

The author of the epistle to Diognetus (about 200) shows his acquaintance. with the gospels and Paul’s epistles; but he never cites the New Testament by way of proof. Words are introduced into his discourse in passing, and from memory. Dionysius of Corinth (170) complains of the falsification of his writings, but consoles himself with the fact that the same is done to the “Scriptures of the Lord,” i.e., the gospels containing the Lord’s words ; or rather the two parts of the early collection, ” the gospel ” and ” the apostle ” together ; which agrees best with the age and tenor of his letters.’ If such be the meaning, the col lection is put on a par with the Old Testament, and regarded as inspired. But Hegesippus still made a distinction between ” the divine writings” (the Old Testament) laid “the words of the Lord;”7 showing that Holy Scripture was nothing else, in his opinion, then the Jewish books. He also used the gospel of the Hebrews and Jewish tradition.8

The letter of the churches at Vienne and Lyons (177) has quotations from the epistles to the Romans, Philippians, 1 Timothy, 1 Peter, Acts, the gospels of Luke and John, the Apocalypse. The lost is expressly called “Scripture.”* This shows a fusion of the two original tendencies—the Petrine and Pauline, and the formation of a catholic church with a common canon of authority. Accordingly, the two apostles, Peter and Paul, are mentioned together.

Theophilus of Antioch (180) was familiar with the gospels and most of Paul’s epistles, as also the Apocalypse. He puts the prophetic and apostolic Scriptures on the same level, because they proceeded from men who had the same spirit. Passages are cited from Paul as ” the divine word.” ”

The conception of a catholic canon was realized about the same time as that of a catholic church. One hundred and seventy years from the coming of Christ elapsed before the

•Diatogus, part ii. p. 315, ed. Tairll-.y. Comp. on Justin, Tjcenk- Willink’s Justinus Marlyr in zijne Vtrhoudtn-r tot i*aubu. •Apolog. i. p. 97, ed. Tbirlby. 4 Hieronymi Proam. in Epill. ad TUum. * Chapter xviil. •Euseb. H.B., jv. 23. * Ibid., iv. 22. 1 Photii BibUoiheca, cod. 232. » Euseb. H.B., v. 1, p. 144, ed. Bright. ” turn Xiyos. Ad Auloliicum. iii 14, p. ed. Migne,

collection assumed a form that carried with it the idea holy and inspired.11 The way in which it was done was by raising the apostolic writings higher and higher till they were of equal authority with the Old Testament, so that the church might have a rule of appeal The Old Testament was not brought down to the New ; the New was raised to the Old. It is clear that the earliest church fathers did not use the books of the New Testament as sacred documents clothed with divine authority, but followed for the most part, at least till the middle of the second century, apostolic tradition orally transmitted. They were not solicitous about a canon circumscribed within certain limits.

In the second half, then, of the second century there was a canon of the New Testament consisting of two parts called the gospel (to evayyeXiov) and tint apostle (6 iiroo- roAos). The first was complete, containing the four gospel- alone; the second, which was incomplete, contained the Acts of the Apostles and epistles, i.e., thirteen letters of Paul, one of Peter, one of John, and the Revelation. How and where this canon originated is uncertain. Its birth place may have been Asia Minor, like Marcion’s; but it may have grown about the same time in Asia Minor, Alexandria, and Western Africa, At all events, Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria, and Tertullian speak of its two parts and the three agree in recognizing its existence.

Irenaeus had a canon which he adopted as apostolic In his view It was of binding force and authoritative. This contained the four gospels, the Acts, thirteen epistles of Paul, the first epistle of John, and the Revelation. He had also a sort of appendix or deuterocanon (which he highly esteemed, without putting it on a par with the received collection), consisting of-John’s second epistle, the first of Peter, and the Shepherd of Hernias. The last he calls a ” Scripture ” because it was prophetic.” The epistle to the Hebrews, that of Jude, James’s, 2 Peter, and 3 John h« ignored.

Clement’s collection was more extended than Irenaeus’s. His appendix or deuterocauon included the epistle to the Hebrew*, 2 John, Jude, the Apocalypse of Peter, the Shepherd of Hennas, the epistles of Clement and Barnabas. He recognizes no distinction between the New Testament writings except by the more frequent use of those generally received, and the degree of importance attached to them. Yet Barnabas is cited as an apostle.1′ So is the Roman Clement.14 The Shepherd of Hermas is spoken of as divine.” Thus the line of the Homologoumena is not marked off even to the same extent as in Irenteus, and is seen but obscurely.’

Tertullian’s canon consisted of the gospels, Acts, thirteen epistles of Paul, the Apocalypse, and 1 John. As an appendix he had the epistle to the Hebrews, that of Jude, the Shepherd of Hernias, 2 John probably, and 1 Peter. This deutero-canon was not regarded as authoritative. No trace occurs in his works of James’s epistle, 2 Peter, and 3 John. He used the Shepherd, but thought little of it, with the Montauists in general.1′ These three fathers did not fix the canon absolutely. Its limits were still unsettled. But they sanctioned most of the books now accepted as divine, putting some extra-canonical productions almost on the same level with the rest, at least in practice.

The canon of Muratori is a fragmentary list which was made towards the end of the 2d century (170). Its birthplace is uncertain, though there are traces of Roman origin. Its translation from the Greek is assumed; but that is uncertain. It begins with the four gospels in the usual order, and proceeds to the Acts, thirteen epistles of Paul, the epistles of John, that of Jude, and the Apocalypse. The epistle to the Hebrews, 1 and 2 Peter, and James on. not named. The epistle “to the Laodiceans” is probably that to the Ephesians, which had this superscription in Murcion’s canon: and that ” to the Alexandrians seems to be the epistle to the Hebrews. According to the usual punctuation, both are said to have been forged in Paul’s name, an opinion which may have been entertained among Roman Christians about 170 A.D. The epistle to the Hebrews was rejected in the West, and may have been thought a supposititious work in the interests of Paulism with some reason, because of its internal character. The story about the origin of the fourth gospel, with its apostolic and episcopal attestation, evinces a desire to establish the authenticity of a work which had not obtained universal^ acceptance at the time. It is

11 See Davidson’s Introduction to Oie Study of the New Testament vol. ii. p. SOP, he. 11 Advert, llcercs., iv. 20, 2. ” NroMala, ii. fi, p. 065, ed. iligue. 14 Ibid., iv. 17, p. 1312. ‘» Ibid., i 29, p. 928. Ds i’tuiicitw, cap. 10.

considerable diversity of opinion among the expositors of the document1

The stichometrical list of the Old and New Testament Scriptures m the Latin of the Clermont MS. (D) was that read in the African Church in the 3d century. It is peculiar. After the Pentateuch, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, and the historical books, follow Psalms; Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles, ‘Wisdom, Sirach, the twelve minor prophets, the four greater, three books of the Maccabees, Judith, Esaras, Esther, Job, and Tobit. In the New Testament, the four gospels, Matthew, John, Mark, Luke, are succeeded by ten epistles of Paul, two of Peter, the epistle of James, three of John, and that of Jude. The epistle to the Hebrews (characterized as that of Barnabas), the Revelation of John, the Acts of the Apostles, the Shepherd of Hennas, the Acts of Paul, the Revelation of Peter, follow. There are thus three New Testament works, afterwards reckoned apocryphal. It is possible that the carelessness of a transcriber may have caused some of the singularities observable in this list, — such as the omission of the epistles to the Philippians and Thessalonians; but the end shows a freer idea of books fitted for reading than what was usual even at that early time in the African Church. * In Syria a version of the New Testament for the use of the church was probably made early in the 3d century. This work, commonly called the Peshito, wants 2 Peter, 2 and 3 John, Jude, and the Apocalypse. It has, however, all the other books, including the epistle of James and that to the Hebrews. The last two were received as apostolic.

Towards the middle of the 3d century Origen’s testimony respecting the Canon (t 254) is of great value. He seems to have distinguished three classes of books—authentic ones, whose apostolic origin was generally admitted, those not authentic, and a middle class not generally recognized, or in regard to which his own opinion wavered. The first contained those already adopted at the beginning of the century both in the East and West, with the Apocalypse, and the epistle to the Hebrews so far as it contains Pauline ideas ; * to the second belongs the Shepherd of Hennas, though he hesitated a little about it, the epistle of Barnabas, the acts of Paul, the gospel according to the Hebrews, the gospel of the Egyptians, and the preaching of Peter ; 4 to the third, the epistle of James, that of Jude, 2 Peter, 2 and 3 John.8 The separation of the various writings is not formally made, nor does Origen give a list of them. His classification is gathered from his works; and though its application admitted of considerable latitude, he is cautious enough, appealing to the tradition of the church, and throwing in qualifying expressions. *

The Canon of Eusebius (+ 340) is given at length in his Ecclesiastical History.” He divides the books into three classes, containing those writings generally received* those controverted, * and the heretical 18 (iii. .31). The first has the four gospels, the Acts, thirteen epistles of Paul, 1 John, 1 Peter, the Apocalypse.” The second class is subdivided into two, the first corresponding to Origen’s mixed or intermediate writings,11 the second to his spurious ones.1′ The farmer subdivision contains the epistles of James, 2 Peter, Jude, 2 and 3 John; the latter, the Acts of Paul, the Shepherd, the Revelation of Peter, the’ epistle of Barnabas, the Doctrines of the Apostles, the Apocalypse of John, the gospel according to the Hebrews. The third class has the gospels of Peter and of Thomas, the traditions of Matthias, the Acts of Peter, Andrew, and John. The subdivisions of the second class are indefinite. The only distinction which Eusebius put between them was that of ecclesiastical use. Though he classes as spurious the Acts of Paul, the Shepherd, the Revelation of Peter, the epistle of Barnabas, the doctrines of the Apostles, the Apocalypse of John, the gospel according to the Hebrews, and does not apply the epithet to the epistle of James, the 2 of Peter, 2 and 8 John, he uses of James’s in one place the

verb yo0«£o/<ai.14 In like manner he speaks of the Apocalypse of Peter and the epistle of Barnabas as controverted. 18 The mixed or spurious of Origen are vaguely separated by Eusebius ; both come under the general head of the controverted ; for after specifying them separately he sums up, “all these will belong to the class of the controverted,” the very class already described as containing “books well known and recognized by most,” implying also that they were read in the churches.18 About 332 the Emperor Constantino entrusted Eusebius with the commission to make out a complete collection of the sacred Christian writings for the use of the Catholic Church. How this order was executed we are not told. But Credner is probably correct in saying that the code consisted of all that is now in the New Testament except the Revelation. The fifty copies which were made must have supplied Constantinople and the Greek Church for a considerable time with an authoritative canon.

Eusebius’s catalogue agrees in substance with that of Origen. The historian followed ecclesiastical tradition. He inquired diligently into the prevailing opinions of the Christian churches and writers, the views held by others before and contemporaneously with himself, but could not attain to a decided result. His hesitation’ stood in the way of a clear, firm view of the question. The tradition respecting certain books was still wavering, and he was unable to fix it. Authority fettered his independent judgment. That he was inconsistent and confused does not need to be shown.

The exact principles that guided the formation of a canon in the earliest centuries cannot be discovered. Definite grounds for the reception or rejection of books were not very clearly apprehended. The choice was determined by various circumstances, of which apostolic origin was the chief, though this itself was insufficiently attested, for, if it be asked whether all the New Testament writings proceeded from the authors whose names they bear, criticism cannot reply in the affirmative. The example and influence of churches to which the writings had been first addressed must have acted upon the reception of books. Above all, individual teachers here and there saw the necessity of meeting heretics with their own weapons, in their own way, with apostolic records instead of oral tradition. The circumstances in which the orthodox were placed led to this step, effecting a bond of union whose need must have been felt while each church was isolated under its own bishop and the collective body could not take measures in common. Writings of more recent origin would be received with greater facility than such as had been in circulation for many years, especially if they professed to come from a prominent apostle. A code of apostolic writings, divine and perfect like the Old Testament, had to be presented as soon as possible against Gnostic and Manichaean heretics, whose doctrines were injurious to objective Christianity; while the multiplication of apocryphal works threatened to overwhelm genuine tradition with a heap of superstition.

When it is asked, to whom do. we owe the canon? the usual answer is, to the Church, which is hardly correct. The Church Catholic did not exist till after the middle of the second century. The preservation of the early Christian writings was owing, in the first instance, to the congregations to whom they were sent, and the neighboring ones with whom such congregations had friendly connection. The care of them devolved on the most influential teachers, —on those who occupied leading positions in the chief cities, or were most interested in apostolic writings as a source of instruction. The Christian books were mostly in the hands of the bishops. In process of time the canon was the care of assemblies or councils. But it had been made before the first general council by a few leading fathers towards the end of the second, century in different countries. The formation of a Catholic Church and of a canon was simultaneous. The circumstances in which the collection originated were unfavorable to the authenticity of its materials, for tradition had been busy over them and their authors. Instead of attributing the formation of the canon to “the Church, it would be more correct to say that the important stage in it was due to three teachers, each working separately and in his own way, who were intent upon the creation of a Christian society which did not appear in the apostolic age,—a visible organization united in faith,—where the discordant opinions of apostolic and sub-apostolic times should be finally merged. The canon was not the work of the Christian Church so much as of the men who were striving to form that Church, and could not get beyond the mould received by primitive Christian literature. The first mention of a ” Catholic Church ” occurs in The Martyrdom of Polycarp, an epistle that cannot be dated earlier than 160 A.D, and may perhaps be ten years later. But though the idea be there end in the Ignatian epistles, its established us» is due to Irenaeus, Tertullian, and Cyprian.

Origen was the first who took a somewhat scientific view of the relative value belonging to the different parts of the biblical collection. His examination of the canon was critical. Before him the leading books had been regarded as divine and sacred, the source of doctrinal and historic truth; and from this stand-point he did not depart. With him ecclesiastical tradition was a prevailing principle in the recognition of books belonging of right to the New Testament collection. He was also guided by the inspiration of the authors, —a criterion arbitrary in its application, as his own statements show. In his time, however, the collection was being gradually enlarged, —his third class, i.e., the mixed, approaching reception into the first. But amid all the fluctuations of opinion to which certain portions of the New Testament were subject, and the unscientific procedure both of fathers and churches in the matter, though councils had not met to discuss it, and vague tradition had strengthened with time, a certain spiritual consciousness manifested itself throughout the East and West in the matter of the canon. Tolerable unanimity ensued. The result was a remarkable one, and calls for our gratitude. Though the development was pervaded by no critical or definite principle, it ended in a canon which has maintained its validity for centuries.

It is sometimes said that the history of the canon should be sought from definite catalogues, not from isolated quotations. The latter are supposed to be of slight value, the former to be the result of deliberate judgment. This remark is more specious than solid. In relation to the Old Testament, the catalogues given by the fathers, aa by Melito and Origen, rest solely on the tradition of the Jews, apart from which they have no independent authority. As none except Jerome and Origen knew Hebrew, their lists of the Old Testament books are simply a reflection of what they learned from others. If they deviate in practice from their masters by quoting as Scripture other than the canonical books, they show their judgment over-riding an external theory. The very men who give a list of the Jewish books evince an inclination to the Christian and enlarged canon. So Origen says, in his Epistle to Africanus, that ” the churches use Tobit.” In explaining the prophet Isaiah, Jerome employs Sirach vL 6, in proof of his view, remarking that the apocryphal work is in the Christian catalogue. In like manner Epiphanius, in a pas sage against Aetius, after referring to the books of Scripture, adds, “as well as the books of Wisdom, t.f., the Wisdom of Solomon and of Jesus son of Sirach; finally, all the other books of Scripture.” In another place he. gives the canon of the Jews historically, and excludes the apocryphal Greek books; but here he includes some of the latter. We also learn from Jerome that Judith was in the number of the books reckoned up by the Nicene Council. Thus the fathers who give catalogues of the Old Testament show the existence of a Jewish and a Christian canon in relation to the Old Testament;—the latter wider than the former, their private opinion more favorable to the one, though the other was historically transmitted. In relation to the New Testament, the synods which drew up lists of the sacred books show the opinion of some leading father like Augustine, along with what custom had sanctioned. In this department no member of the synod exercised his critical faculty; a number together would decide such questions summarily. Bishops proceed in the track of tradition or authority.

The Reasons Why Majority Of Jews Rejected Christian Idea Of Jesus

Let’s understand why ― not in order to disparage other religions, but rather to clarify the Jewish position.

Jews do not accept Jesus as the messiah because:
1 Jesus did not fulfill the messianic prophecies.
2 Jesus did not embody the personal qualifications of the Messiah.
3 Biblical verses “referring” to Jesus are mistranslations.
4 Jewish belief is based on national revelation.
But first, some background: What exactly is the Messiah?
The word “Messiah” is an English rendering of the Hebrew word Mashiach, which means “anointed.” It usually refers to a person initiated into God’s service by being anointed with oil. (Exodus 29:7, 1-Kings 1:39, 2-Kings 9:3)

1 Jesus Did Not Fulfill the Messianic Prophecies

What is the Messiah supposed to accomplish? One of the central themes of biblical prophecy is the promise of a future age of perfection characterized by universal peace and recognition of God. (Isaiah 2:1-4, 32:15-18, 60:15-18; Zephaniah 3:9; Hosea 2:20-22; Amos 9:13-15; Micah 4:1-4; Zechariah 8:23, 14:9; Jeremiah 31:33-34)
Specifically, the Bible says he will:
1 Build the Third Temple (Ezekiel 37:26-28).
2 Gather all Jews back to the Land of Israel (Isaiah 43:5-6).
3 Usher in an era of world peace, and end all hatred, oppression, suffering and disease. As it says: “Nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall man learn war anymore.” (Isaiah 2:4)
4 Spread universal knowledge of the God of Israel, which will unite humanity as one. As it says: “God will be King over all the world ― on that day, God will be One and His Name will be One” (Zechariah 14:9).

If an individual fails to fulfill even one of these conditions, then he cannot be the Messiah.
Because no one has ever fulfilled the Bible’s description of this future King, Jews still await the coming of the Messiah. All past Messianic claimants, including Jesus of Nazareth, Bar Cochba and Shabbtai Tzvi have been rejected.
Christians counter that Jesus will fulfill these in the Second Coming. Jewish sources show that the Messiah will fulfill the prophecies outright; in the Bible no concept of a second coming exists.

2) Jesus Did Not Embody the Personal Qualifications of Messiah

1 Messiah as Prophet
The Messiah will become the greatest prophet in history, second only to Moses. (Targum – Isaiah 11:2; Maimonides – Yad Teshuva 9:2)
Prophecy can only exist in Israel when the land is inhabited by a majority of world Jewry, a situation which has not existed since 300 BCE. During the time of Ezra, when the majority of Jews remained in Babylon, prophecy ended upon the death of the last prophets ― Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi.
Jesus appeared on the scene approximately 350 years after prophecy had ended, and thus could not be a prophet.
1 Descendent of David
Many prophetic passages speak of a descendant of King David who will rule Israel during the age of perfection. (Isaiah 11:1-9; Jeremiah 23:5-6, 30:7-10, 33:14-16; Ezekiel 34:11-31, 37:21-28; Hosea 3:4-5)
The Messiah must be descended on his father’s side from King David (see Genesis 49:10, Isaiah 11:1, Jeremiah 23:5, 33:17; Ezekiel 34:23-24). According to the Christian claim that Jesus was the product of a virgin birth, he had no father ― and thus could not have possibly fulfilled the messianic requirement of being descended on his father’s side from King David. (1)
According to Jewish sources, the Messiah will be born of human parents and possess normal physical attributes like other people. He will not be a demi-god, (2) nor will he possess supernatural qualities.
1 Torah Observance
The Messiah will lead the Jewish people to full Torah observance. The Torah states that all mitzvot remain binding forever, and anyone coming to change the Torah is immediately identified as a false prophet. (Deut. 13:1-4)
Throughout the New Testament, Jesus contradicts the Torah and states that its commandments are no longer applicable. For example, John 9:14 records that Jesus made a paste in violation of Shabbat, which caused the Pharisees to say (verse 16), “He does not observe Shabbat!”

3) Mistranslated Verses “Referring” to Jesus
Biblical verses can only be understood by studying the original Hebrew text ― which reveals many discrepancies in the Christian translation.
1 Virgin Birth
The Christian idea of a virgin birth is derived from the verse in Isaiah 7:14 describing an “alma” as giving birth. The word “alma” has always meant a young woman, but Christian theologians came centuries later and translated it as “virgin.” This accords Jesus’ birth with the first century pagan idea of mortals being impregnated by gods.

1 Suffering Servant
Christianity claims that Isaiah chapter 53 refers to Jesus, as the “suffering servant.”
In actuality, Isaiah 53 directly follows the theme of chapter 52, describing the exile and redemption of the Jewish people. The prophecies are written in the singular form because the Jews (“Israel”) are regarded as one unit. Throughout Jewish scripture, Israel is repeatedly called, in the singular, the “Servant of God” (see Isaiah 43:8). In fact, Isaiah states no less than 11 times in the chapters prior to 53 that the Servant of God is Israel.
When read correctly, Isaiah 53 clearly [and ironically] refers to the Jewish people being “bruised, crushed and as sheep brought to slaughter” at the hands of the nations of the world. These descriptions are used throughout Jewish scripture to graphically describe the suffering of the Jewish people (see Psalm 44).

Isaiah 53 concludes that when the Jewish people are redeemed, the nations will recognize and accept responsibility for the inordinate suffering and death of the Jews.

A Teaching Of Mikvah/Immersion/Baptism

It simply began by wanting to re-familiarize myself with what I always considered to be one of the first acts of obedience after a new Believer accepts Messiah into their spiritual heart —the act of baptism. I felt that this task should be easy enough to refresh myself during a quiet day of Shabbat! But from the beginning of settling into my spiritual feeding, what I thought I knew began to unravel itself, and what I thought I understood became only a shadow of what should be known. The teaching of baptism has haphazardly been taught throughout many generations of the Church Age. But Yehovah, in His love and concern for this last Church Period, is restoring those who deeply seek out His pure ways of worship. Ahhhh . . . how I love His timely teachings! It began in Hebrews, where I read:
Heb 6:1-3
1 Therefore, leaving the discussion of the elementary principles of Christ, let us go on to perfection, not laying again the foundation of repentance from dead works and of faith toward God, 2 of the doctrine of baptisms, of laying on of hands, of resurrection of the dead, and of eternal judgment. 3 And this we will do if God permits.
What Yehovah permitted on this day was the intrigue that caught my eye concerning the wording of verse two which states, “the doctrine of baptisms.”
Baptism(s)! —Plural!
At that point a flood of other verses started to come into my head.
Luke 3:16
16 John (the baptizer) answered, saying to all, "I indeed baptize you with water; but One mightier than I is coming, whose sandal strap I am not worthy to loose. He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and fire.
1 Cor 12:13
13 For by one Spirit we were all baptized into one body — whether Jews or Greeks, whether slaves or free — and have all been made to drink into one Spirit.
In those two verses alone, it speaks of four types of baptisms:

 the Holy Spirit


 identification of Yeshua within the body of Believers
I always considered baptism a one-time event in life. But now I am realizing that there are different baptisms, indeed! Just as Hebrews 6:2 has now revealed in “the doctrine of baptisms.”

In Hebrews 6:2, the Amplified version reads just a bit different referring “the doctrine of baptisms” as being “ teachings about purifying;” having the word ‘teachings’ pluralized. Along with ‘teachings’ was the word, ‘purifying,’ which brought together for me where I needed to begin. For everything taught in the New Covenant will and should have its foundation laid within the Old.
I began my search by looking up all the verses that I could find pertaining to baptism and purification. I then remembered that a writing had already been done for another study on the historical aspect of purification, so I re-read what had been put together years ago. Once I felt satisfied that I could go no further, I then turned my attention toward other Believers who, like myself, have searched this matter out before me.
My first stop was with Michael Rood, a Messianic evangelist, who has done a three-part series of what he collectively calls, “The Mikvah – Doctrine of Baptisms.” His teaching included six types of mikvah-ings:


 Identification with Yeshua



Yet, I clearly see a seventh that was not mentioned in his teaching: Sanctification
Having had the word mikvah previously introduced in my life, the element that there were many different types took me off guard and still had me a bit puzzled after completing the teaching from Michael Rood. For me, a mikvah was the contained place that pooled the water; whereas, Michael Rood used the word ‘mikvah’ as also the act of being mikvah(ed). I came to accept it to be similar to the wording that we baptize in a baptismal. I had not ever given thought of the place and the act of mikvah being so similarly used, but it simply became a matter of wording within his teaching. This is not to criticize, but to give a bit of explanation to anyone else researching water purification from the Old Covenant and the elements of ‘types’ that are found within the New Covenant.
Because of the teaching from Michael Rood, a door was opened for me to walk through and the understanding was astounding. Very briefly, let me share with you what was gathered directly from his teaching; along with what I understood prior to this research. The act of Mikvah, as related in the first three, have everything to do with the covering over with water:


 Repentant obedience; as in the immersion spoken of in Matthew 28

 Identifying with Messiah through His act of burial and resurrection into a new life

The final four have to do with our spiritual walk as we are covered over, immersed, and engulfed with the Holy Spirit sent from both, the Father and the Son! They are:

Receiving the Holy Spirit; sealing each Believer for the day of redemption Being Spirit-filled by holy fire through His teachings, fruit-bearing, and gifts Sufferings; as we learn His ways by laying down our own self-will Sanctification; being set apart from this world; walking a Spirit-filled life
I am very
that there
new Believer through obedience. I now understand it also to be the immersion of teachings, the fruit-bearing and the gifts that are received from the Holy Spirit; and not to be left unmentioned, our sealing!
appreciative of Michael Rood’s teaching and through it have become intensely aware is so much more to baptism than that of being immersed completely into water as a
The last detail needed here is to offer scripture references for each area concerning baptism(s) by what was gathered from the three-part series of Michael Rood’s broadcast called, “A Rood Awakening.”1 Below, I have selected a few scriptures to fit into each category.
Acts 21: 15-26 (in particular vss. 23-26); John 11:55
Matt 3:11; Mark 1:4; Luke 3:3; Acts 19:4-5
Identification with Yeshua
Acts 2:38; Rom 6:3-4; Gal 3:27-29; 1 Peter 3:21;
Mark 1:8; John 14:16, 26; Acts 11:15; Gal 5:22-23; 1 Cor 12:4-11
Acts 2:3-4, 17-21; 2 Cor 3:18; 2 Cor 4:6
Rom 5:3-5; Rom 8:17-18; 2 Tim 3:12;
Romans 8:13-14; 2 Cor 7:1; 1 Thess 4:7-8; 1 John 3:3
Next, I want to bring in the word meanings of mikvah/baptism from the Strong’s Concordance.
OT:4723 miqveh (mik-veh'); or miqveh (1 Kings 10:28) (mik-vay'); or miqve' (2 Chron 1:16) (mik-vay'); from OT:6960;* something waited for, i.e. confidence (objective or subjective); also a collection, i.e. (of water) a pond, or (of men and horses) a caravan or drove:
KJV – abiding, gathering together, hope, linen yarn, plenty [of water], pool.
* OT:6960 qavah (kaw-vaw'); a primitive root; to bind together (perhaps by twisting), i.e. collect; (figuratively) to expect:
KJV – gather (together), look, patiently, tarry, wait (for, on, upon).

OT:4724 miqvah (mik-vaw'); feminine of OT:4723; a collection, i.e. (of water) a reservoir:
KJV – ditch.2
The word – MIKVAH – can now be easier discerned as to how it is used scripturally within the Hebrew usage of the word. But mikvah went through a total word translation once its concept was written into the Greek text of Yehovah’s Word; for there was no word-perfect Greek translation for this word. So the concept of mikvah was then translated into Greek from the many variations of the word – BAPTO –
NT:911 bapto (bap'-to); a primary verb; to overwhelm, i.e. cover wholly with a fluid; in the N. T. only in a qualified or specially, sense, i.e. (literally) to moisten (a part of one's person), or (by implication) to stain (as with dye):
KJV – dip.
NT:907 baptizo (bap-tid'-zo); from a derivative of NT:911; to immerse, submerge; to make overwhelmed (i.e. fully wet); used only (in the N. T.) of ceremonial ablution, especially (technically) of the ordinance of Christian baptism:
KJV – Baptist, baptize, wash.
NT:908 baptisma (bap'-tis-mah); from NT:907; immersion, baptism (technically or figuratively):
KJV – baptism.
NT:909 baptismos (bap-tis-mos'); from NT:907; ablution (ceremonial or Christian): KJV – baptism, washing.
NT:910 Baptistes (bap-tis-tace'); from NT:907; a baptizer, as an epithet of Christ's forerunner:
KJV – Baptist.3
From the teaching of Michael Rood to the word comparison of the Strong’s Concordance, I then took a venture onto the internet. There are many who have written on this very subject about baptisms, plural. But one article in particular stood out from the rest. So in conclusion, I would like to introduce some of the introduction which was found on an excellent website which presents a study called, “Mikvah: A Study of Immersion/Baptism” by Peggy Pryor. In part, she states:
“The Greek word for baptism is baptizo meaning to immerse or dip a cloth into a vat of dye. The word is derived from an industry of dying cloth in Lebanon. The vats used to hold the different colors of dye, and the process of placing the cloth into the vats was called baptizo. As time passed the ritual purity process of immersion began to be known as baptism. The Hebrew word for immersion is tevilah and means literally immersing in a ritual bath known as a mikvah. Immersion is the act of washing performed to correct a condition of ritual impurity and restore the impure to a state of ritual purity. It is never for the purpose of cleaning or bathing the body.
“The mikvah/ritual bath was of great importance to the first century Jew. It was understood that if a community or village had only enough money for a synagogue or a mikvah, the mikvah would be built first. The Torah speaks of numerous things that make a person Tomeh/ritually unclean, and a number of processes of purification. The one act required in all purification processes was immersion in the mikvah.
“Life for the average Jew, in the average village, depended on access to the mikvah. A man from the tribe of Levi, a son of Aaron could not assume his office as priest until he had gone through a mikvah. Before a person could be tahor/ritually clean to enter the grounds of the Holy Temple in Jerusalem, he must be immersed in the mikvah. The severest punishment was imposed on a person for entering the Temple area in the state of tomeh/ritual impurity. A woman in her monthly cycle was required to wear special clothing so all would know that she was in a state of niddah (ritually unclean due to monthly cycle). She would not be tahor/ritually clean until after entering the mikvah. Immersion in a mikvah is an integral part of conversion to Judaism. Without immersion conversion is not valid. There are many more times an immersion in a mikvah is customary, we will endeavor to explore as many as space permits.
“There are two basic parts of Torah, one is the written Torah consisting of the first five books of the Bible, with which we are all familiar. The second part of Torah is just as important but not as well known. It is what we call the Oral Torah or unwritten law. This was handed down orally from generation to generation for about 1,500 years. About the third century C.E. Oral Torah was put into writing by Rabbi Yehudah the Prince and is the foundation of Mishnah. The Talmud was formed after discussion and commentary was added. All Jewish law is derived from this Oral Torah. We might call it the "how to" book. Detail instructions on how to carry out all worship, the festivals, sacrifices, commandments, including ritual purification and preparing the mikvah are in Oral Torah.
“The Mikvah is a ritual bath, the Hebrew word mikvah means a "pool" or "gathering" of water. Two direct references in the Bible to Mikvah are in the Bible. In Leviticus 11:36 it is written:
"Only a spring and a pit, a gathering (Mikvah) of water, shall be clean…"
“The second is Jeremiah 17:12-13 as it is written:
"A glorious high throne from the beginning is the place of our sanctuary. {13} O LORD, the hope of Israel, all that forsake thee shall be ashamed, and they that depart from me shall be written in the earth, because they have forsaken the LORD, the fountain of living waters".
“The word translated hope in verse 13 is Mikvah thus giving us the understanding that Messiah is the cleansing fountain/Mikvah or hope of Israel.
“While Messiah still hung, on the cross a Roman "soldier pierced His side, immediately there came out blood and water"; John 19:34 NAS the opening of the cleansing fountain or Mikvah for Israel. In Zechariah 13:1 it is written:
"In that day there shall be a fountain opened to the house of David and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem for sin and for uncleanness."4
The entirety of Peggy Pryor’s teaching is very informative. If you are finding that you are benefitting from this study concerning Mikvah/Water Purification/Baptisms, I strongly suggest that you continue on with her five-part series of this subject. Not out of laziness on my part, but I hold a firm opinion that there is no need for me to write further regarding this teaching when Yehovah has already, through His Spirit, used another servant to write the complexity of this topic down. She covers all that I had originally planned to address. Her website can be found below in the endnotes of this study. May Yehovah bless your continued reading as you pursue to learn more concerning “the doctrine of baptism(s).”