This Week’s Torah Portion | 4 Feb – 10 Feb, 2018 – 19 Shevat – 25 Shevat, 5778

Mishpatim (Ordinances) Parsha – Weekly Torah Portion

TORAH : EXODUS 21:1-24:18
PROPHETS : 2 KINGS 11:17-12:17

About the Weekly Torah Portion

From ancient times there has been a weekly portion (Parashah) from the first five books of Moses (The Torah) and an ending (Haftarah) from the Prophets read on the Sabbath in synagogues around the world. This portion is given a Hebrew name drawn from the opening words of the Torah passage.

We have found that in perusing these weekly readings, not only are we provided opportunity to identify in the context of God’s Word with millions of Jewish people around the world, but very often the Holy Spirit will highlight specific passages pertinent that week in our intercession for the Land and people of Israel.

The Haftarah, unless otherwise noted, will be that read in Ashkenazy synagogues around the world.

“The word of the LORD came to me saying, ‘What do you see, Jeremiah?’ And I said, ‘I see a rod of an almond tree.’ Then the LORD said to me, ‘You have seen well, for I am watching over My word to perform it.’”

“Unless the LORD builds the house, they labor in vain who build it; Unless the LORD guards the city, the watchman keeps awake in vain.” (Psalm 127:1)

“Blessed is the man who listens to me [i.e. wisdom], watching daily at my doors, waiting at my doorway. For those who find me find life and receive favor from the LORD.” (Proverbs 8:34).

The readings for this week 4-10 February 2018 are called Mishpatim—“Judgments”:

NOTE: The Sabbath preceding the 1st of Adar (this year February 16th) is traditionally set apart for honoring the giving in ancient times of a “Shekel Tax” for the Tabernacle/Temple. On this Sabbath an additional Torah portion (Exodus 30:11-16) is read in synagogues; and a reading from II Kings mentioning “each man’s census money” often replaces the usual Haftarah reading from Jeremiah.


Almond Tree in Israel

Last week’s Portion began with the appointments of judges in Israel. The first three chapters of this week’s readings provide these judges with guidelines for the working out of righteous judgments (mishpatim) in Israel’s governance. They include laws and ordinances, with instructions for situations related to various moral issues and offenses. These might be seen as subheadings to the Ten Commandments of Chapter 20 (Instructions for the Priesthood related to its intercession between the people and heaven will come later in Exodus and through the entire Book of Leviticus.). Chapter 23 also contains sections regarding the rest (Sabbaths) God has provided—both for man, his animals, and for the land within which they will be living. There are instructions regarding the three “pilgrim feasts”, which will be observed once the land is conquered. And there are revelations and instructions pertaining to that conquest itself, including the extent of the land’s future boundaries. In a remarkable passage in Chapter 24, YHVH calls Moses, Aaron and his two sons, and 70 elders of the people to a special personal meeting with Himself. At the last, His Glory rests on Mount Sinai and Moses goes up into the cloud to be with God for forty days and forty nights. To the eyes of the Israelites, the glory of the LORD is “as a consuming fire on the mountain top.”

*Exodus 21:2. “If you buy a Hebrew servant…” There are passages in this reading dealing with the fair treatment of servants or slaves (the Hebrew word is the same for either). They are instructions specifically for Israel and the circumstances she would encounter as a people set apart and with her God present with her. During this period it appears to have been permitted for a family beset by financial difficulties to sell their services to a fellow Hebrew. But such arrangements were to be administered within certain guidelines, and for a restricted period of time, with release coming on the seventh year (Israel’s failure to follow these guidelines is part of the subject of this week’s normal Haftarah in Jeremiah). Other passages in this reading deal with treatment of those brought into servitude after being captured on the battlefield (always excepting the nations within Canaan itself, which were under God’s judgment and not to be given quarter). In the New Covenant, instructions were given to believers regarding servants and their masters (Ephesians 6:5-9; I Peter 2:18-25), with a special reminder to masters that “your own Master also is in heaven, and there is no partiality with Him.”

*Exodus 21:5-6 (NKJV). “But if the servant plainly says, ‘I love my master, my wife, and my children; I will not go out free,’ then his master shall bring him to the judges…” The word here translated “judges” is actually Hebrew Elohim – “God”. The judgments made by Moses (Exodus 18:19) and by the “judges” set up at the counsel of Jethro 18:17-27 were considered to be those of God Himself (See also Deuteronomy 1:17a: “You shall not show partiality in judgment; you shall hear the small as well as the great; you shall not be afraid in any man’s presence, for the judgment is God’s…”).

*Exodus 22:21; 23:9. “You shall not wrong a stranger or oppress him….since you yourselves know the feelings of a stranger, for you also were strangers in the land of Egypt.” The word “stranger” is Hebrew ger, a “sojourner, temporary dweller, new-comer with no inherited rights” (Brown-Driver-Briggs 1616).

Israel is presently in a serious dilemma related to some 38,000 persons who migrated from Africa (mostly Eritrea and Sudan) and crossed into Israel through her border with the Sinai Peninsula between 2006 and 2012. At its height in 2010, the flux of those pouring into the land reached 1,300 a month. In 2014 Israel constructed a 150-mile long fence along that border, one which electrically alerts border security when it is breached; and the entrances have since stopped. Today around 90% of those immigrants live in southern Tel Aviv. They are considered illegal and are without a status and unable to obtain good jobs or societal benefits. These people claim to be seeking asylum from repressive, in some cases genocidal regimes. Israeli officials believe that the majority are actually “economic migrants”—entering Israel illegally in search of better way of life. Recently, the present government has begun enacting plans to deport large numbers of those they don’t believe qualify as refugees back to the African continent. It is a very complicated difficult and distressing situation. Many have already been here for over eight years, have begun to learn Hebrew, have raised children; all wish to become Israeli citizens. There is no doubt that many are legitimate refugees who could face terrible hardships if deported. It is also true that many are not. Israel is in need of showing mercy and humanitarianism. Yet, if Israel opens its borders to everyone who would like to take advantage of our economy and civil opportunities, this tiny and crowded country which feels a strong responsibility that it maintain a Jewish majority would be flooded. Those in our present government who hold the authority over who may enter are presently ultra-Orthodox, who have a very narrow view of who should be allowed into the country. May the God of Israel guide and clarify clearly who are the sojourners He has brought to live in the midst of His land long side His returned chosen people Israel! To err here could bring judgment upon our nation.

PLEASE PRAY: for wisdom, mingled with compassion and the fear of the Lord amongst Israel’s leaders regarding the continuing difficulties of illegal immigration to Israel, especially the crisis of the African refugees in Tel Aviv. Pray that those immigrants God is drawing to abide in His land will be welcomed and cared for here; that those being sent by the evil one to cause division will be kept out. That God’s mercy and protection attend those who are sent away. Pray for the life of the Son to come into the peoples of this Land—so that the harmony of the Holy Spirit will rule over the Jews He has appointed to oversee His land—over the Arabs and others peoples the Lord appoints to live out their lives before Him in Israel.

*Exodus 22:22-24. “You shall not afflict any widow or fatherless child. If you afflict them in any way, and they cry at all to Me, I will surely hear their cry, and My wrath will become hot…” The plight of these people has always been and continues to be close to God’s heart. “Pure and undefiled religion before God and the Father is this: to visit orphans and widows in their trouble, and to keep oneself unspotted from the world” (James 1:27).

*Exodus 22:28. “You shall not revile God, nor curse a ruler of your people.” We find it instructive that the Hebrew words for “revile” and “curse” are the same two words used in a warning relevant to the seed of Abraham in Genesis 12:3: “I will bless those who bless you, and those who revile you, I will curse.” “Cursing” is a solemn prerogative of the Most High.

PLEASE PRAY: for grace among believers in Israel to bless our leaders with intercession on their behalf—that, while not being blind to their faults, we will not curse them by reviling them with our words, either by mouth or on the internet. It is God who raises up authorities…it is to Him that we have recourse if they misbehave.

*Exodus 23:20. “Behold, I am going to send an angel before you to guard you along the way and to bring you into the place which I have prepared. Be on your guard before him and obey his voice, to not be rebellious toward him, for he will not pardon your transgression, since My name is in him.” Although the Hebrew word for “angel” can also mean “messenger” (some Jewish commentators even equate this angel with Moses himself), it is virtually certain that a supernatural being is referred to here. It is this being who will “bring them in” to the land (something which Moses will, alas, not ultimately be allowed to take part in). In this passage, God also mentions sending His “terror” ahead of Israel, along with “hornets” (vss 27, 28). The battle would be won “little by little” until Israel would “become fruitful and take possession of the Land” (vs. 30); and the LORD would ‘fix’ her boundaries (vs 31).

PLEASE PRAY: that Israel become again aware of the supernatural element which is required in her warfare. Pray for believers to receive revelation as how best to “be on their guard” for the voice of angels whose assignments from God include ministering on their behalf (Hebrews 1:14). Pray for patience regarding the battle, in which at times victory must be accomplished “little by little” (Vs 30); and for an awareness that “fruitfulness” must precede taking full “possession of the Land” (Vs 30). Pray that Israel’s borders would be “fixed in God’s timing according to His Word (Vs 31).

*Exodus 23:25-26. “So you shall serve the LORD your God, and He will bless your bread and your water. And I will take sickness away from the midst of you. No one shall suffer miscarriage or be barren in your land; I will fulfill the number of your days.”

PLEASE PRAY: That the Body of Messiah in Israel will grasp these promises in faith in our own day.

*Exodus 24:6-8. “And Moses took half the blood and put it in basins and half the blood he sprinkled on the altar. Then he took the Book of the Covenant and read in the hearing of the people. And they said, ‘All that YHVH has said we will do, and be obedient.’ And Moses took the blood sprinkled it on the people, and said, ‘This is the blood of the covenant which YHVH has made with you according to all these words.” Perhaps in this case the blood was sprinkled upon the seventy elders as representative of the million+ congregation of Israel. Hebrews 9:19-22 appears to quote from this passage to show that “according to the Torah, almost all things are purified with blood, and without shedding of blood there is no remission”—“But (Hebrews 9:11-15) Messiah came as High Priest of the good things to come…Not with the blood of goats and calves, but with His own blood He entered the Most Holy Place once for all, having obtained eternal redemption…How much more shall the blood of Messiah, who through the eternal Spirit offered Himself without spot to God, cleanse your conscience from dead works to serve the living God? For this reason He is the Mediator of the New Covenant, by means of death, for the redemption of the transgressions under the First Covenant, that those who are called may receive the promise of the eternal inheritance.”

PLEASE PRAY: That through this same “Eternal Spirit” revelation would come to Jews that a New Covenant (Jeremiah 31:31) is come—in the blood of Messiah Yeshua (Luke 22:20) which has been shed for them and for all children of Adam.

*Exodus 24:9-11. “Then Moses went up with Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel, and they saw the God of Israel; and under His feet there appeared to be a pavement of sapphire, as clear as the sky itself, yet He did not stretch out His hand against the nobles of the sons of Israel; and they saw God, and they ate and drank.” Twice in this passage we are told that these leaders of Israel “saw God”. Since “no one has seen God at any time”, but “He who has seen the Son has seen the Father”—we believe that this can only have been an encounter with the pre-incarnate Yeshua. There are two different Hebrew words used here for ‘saw’. The first (root: ra’ah) most generally means simply “to see”. The second (root: ha’zah) has more to do with “gazing upon”…in fact, it is often used in both Biblical and Modern Hebrew in a prophetic sense. It is this word which is used in Psalm 27:4, where the poet’s greatest longing is to dwell in the LORD’s house so as to “gaze upon the beauty of the LORD and to inquire in His temple.”

PLEASE PRAY: for leaders of present-day Israel to be granted to “see” the God of their father Israel/Jacob, and to have (and to take) opportunity to “gaze” at the beauty of His risen Son. Pray for an opening of the eyes of leaders in the Body of Messiah in Israel to “see” prophetically. In ancient Israel, these included worship leaders such as Heman (I Chron. 25:5), Asaph (II Chron. 29:30) and Jeduthan (II Chron. 35:15) who were referred to as “seers” and whose descendants ‘prophesied’ on their instruments (I Chron. 25:1).

*Exodus 24:17. “The sight of the glory of the LORD was like a consuming fire on the top of the mountain in the eyes of the children of Israel.”

PLEASE PRAY: Hebrews 12:28-29 into our lives as believers here in Israel—even as we would pray the same for you: “Therefore, since we are receiving a kingdom which cannot be shaken, let us have grace, by which we may serve God acceptably with reverence and godly fear. For our God is a consuming fire.”

*Jeremiah 33:25-26. “Thus says the LORD: ‘If I have not established my covenant with day and night and the fixed order of heaven and earth, then I will reject the offspring of Jacob and David my servant and will not choose one of his offspring to rule over the offspring of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. For I will restore their fortunes and will have mercy on them.’”

PLEASE PRAY: For leaders of God’s choosing to arise into the offices of leadership in the Land—those in whom will awaken the lineage with the anointing, the courage and wisdom, and passion after God that David the king had in His day.

[The readings for next week (11-17 February 2018) are called T’rumah—“Donation”: TORAH: Exodus 25:1—28:19; HAFTARAH: I Kings 5:12—6:13]
In A Nutshell
In the portion, Mishpatim (Ordinances), the Creator gives to Moses a collection of laws and judgments pertaining to various topics: between man and man, Hebrew slaves, Hebrew maidservant, murder, theft, lending money, and others. The Creator also dictates laws concerning man and God, meat and dairy foods, the Sabbath, Shmita (year of omission, refraining from growing crops), etc.

Moses conveys to the children of Israel the message that the Creator will help them enter the land of Israel, and warns them about practicing idolatry. Moses reads before them from the book of covenant, and the people reply, “We will do and we will hear” (Exodus, 24:7). Moses builds an altar and offers sacrifices to the Creator, and a covenant is signed between the people and the Creator. Moses carries out the Creator’s command, ascends Mount Sinai to receive the tablets of the covenant, accompanied by his servant, Joshua, and stays there forty days and forty nights.

In the portion, Mishpatim (Ordinances), Moses ascends Mount Sinai although he had already received all the laws and ordinances and the children of Israel had already kept the Torah and the laws regarding the offerings. This tells us that laws and ordinances are one thing, and the Torah is another.

The portion details all the laws of the spiritual world, everything a person needs to do. In order to be able to do it we must receive the Torah. The Torah was given because “I have created the evil inclination, I have created for it the Torah as a spice.”[1] That is, one is shown who one is compared to what one should be at the degree of “man,” in a state of loving others and connection among everyone, a state of correction of all the egoistic desires.

This is why the laws come first. One who begins to study the wisdom of Kabbalah understands that first one must correct oneself, one’s attitude toward the group, toward the people, and toward the world. There are many internal corrections of the evil inclination that one must perform. When one understands what one must do is when the time of reception of the Torah arrives. A person learns to receive the light that corrects one during the study.

This is how we gradually obtain the upper world, the Creator, the upper force that fills the upper world. This is why it was said, “We will do and we will hear”: first we must do, and then—in the corrected Kelim (vessels) that we build—we discover the Creator filling those Kelim.

The portion explains the structure of the soul because it is all there is. Although we are living in the soul now, too, we feel and understand this world within the soul to a very limited degree, still (inanimate) degree. The portion tells us how to open up the soul, the Kli (vessel), and how to correct and expand it. This allows us to transcend the boundaries of this world.

When we correct all the levels in the soul, namely the corrupt the desires, we open them up and discover within them the higher dimension, the upper world. Thus, in addition to our perception of this world, we also feel the upper world, as it is written, “You will see your world in your life.”[2] The Torah was given to us in order to open ourselves up to the perception of the spiritual world, so we could live in both worlds through our present perception, through our bodies, until we understand that it isn’t really our body.

Today, the entire world, the whole of humanity, is in a crisis. It is a stage of transitioning from the perception of this world into the perception of the additional, spiritual world.

In conferences that discuss the future of the world, scientists and psychologists claim that the whole of humanity is in transition to a new perception. We therefore see that we are shifting to new laws and a new perception of reality.

Mishpatim is pertinent today, as well, as we are discovering that we do not know the rules affecting our world, making it difficult for us to cope with it. When we begin to know the world, we will discover that to cope with it we need the Torah, an instruction, for “I have created the evil inclination; I have created for it the Torah as a spice.”

We should recognize that we do not have the power of the light that reforms, the Torah of light, namely the wisdom of Kabbalah, by which to achieve the correction of human nature. With the corrected nature we will see the new, expanded reality.

When Moses arrives with Joshua at Mount Sinai, he leaves him below and ascends. He stays on the mountain for “forty days and forty nights” (Genesis, 7:4) in order to receive the power of the Torah. This is considered that he has risen a degree.

Man is a small world. Therefore, we must come to see that the whole of reality is in us. Within us are all the laws, all the ordinances, the people of Israel, all the parts of our will to receive that we must arrange as the structure of the soul. We leave what is considered “Joshua” below, while Moses climbs to the top of the mountain. When we set up the picture correctly at the stage of our spiritual progress called “the portion, Mishpatim,” we advance toward attaining the goal of creation. In that state, we feel as one who is climbing up the mountain and is already in contact with the Creator.

Questions and Answers

The portion details many rules, such as concerning Hebrew slaves, and meat and dairy foods. These are divided into to parts: between man and man, and between man and God. On the one hand, we say that everything is about relations between people. On the other hand, we say that everything is about connecting to the Creator; why do we make that division?

All the rules were intended for the correction of the soul, meaning our will to receive. All that was created is the will to receive, and each of us is immersed in our own will to receive. The will to receive is divided into ten Sephirot: Keter, Hochma, Bina, Hesed, Gevura, Tifferet, Netzah, Hod, Yesod, and Malchut. It is also divided into three lines, into five Behinot (discernments), and into Aviut (thickness, levels of desire) Shoresh (root)-1-2-3-4. It contains everything.

We are living inside our will to receive, which is called a Neshama (soul), and the Creator is the general force of bestowal, of love. When inside our will to receive, and not in bestowal and love, we do not discover the Creator in our soul; He is hidden. We can discover Him only if we correct our will to receive so it works in order to bestow, in love of others. In the process appears the force of bestowal and love, called “the Creator.”

So how do we correct it and how do we approach the correction? The whole world is mistaken in that question. Everyone thinks that they understand what we need to do in life; this is why there are so many religions and belief systems. But none but real Kabbalists have any clear notion.

In fact, our Torah is very simple. It is even written, “It is one, easy thing.”[3] A person needs to join a group that engages only is in love of friends, and that this is its goal. If we are “as one man with one heart,”[4] we will receive the Torah. If we do not, here will be our burial, as it is written, “If you receive the Torah (law), very well; if you do not, there will it be your burial.”[5] That is, everything relates to connection.

There are two stages in love of humanity. First, there is “that which you hate, do not do to your friend.”[6] Next, there is “love your neighbor as yourself … it is a great rule in the Torah.”[7] Both stages are to be carried out in a group. In a group we learn all the rules concerning man and man.

When we understand, know, and have mastered these laws, and can feel and sense them, we understand how to advance from the love of man to the love of God, the Creator. This is when we ascend to a state of “and you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul, and with all your might” (Deuteronomy, 6:5). In that state we acquire the mind, heart, understanding, and the inclination toward it when we engage in love of others. This is why we go from loving people into love of the Creator.

There are rules concerning man and man, and there are rules concerning man and God. Why do we feel it is easier to observe the commandments concerning man and God?

It is easier because when we perform Mitzvot concerning man and God we feel that we can say anything. It is enough to shove a note into a crack in the Wailing Wall in Jerusalem to calm ourselves. It is nice; we get no response; no one tells us if we are right or wrong, if it is enough or not. However, toward friends, relatives, general people, the nation, state, and humanity, we need to actually reach the goal—to scrutinize whether we love them or not.

“Love” means that one takes the desires of others and satisfies them however one can, caring for them before caring for one’s own. This is the meaning of love. It is serving others in every way, instead of serving myself. Today it seems impossible, so it is easier to cover it up by saying, “Don’t worry, I get on with the Creator.” However, this leads us very far from the true Torah.

From The Zohar: Administer Justice in the Morning

Why did the Creator see fit to give the Dinim to Israel, meaning the portion Mishpatim [Ordinances], after the ten commandments? The Torah was given to Israel from the side of Gevura. For this reason, they must establish peace among them through judgments and ordinances, so that the Torah will be kept on all its sides. The world exists only on Din, for without the Din it would not exist. And for this reason, the world was created in Din and exists.

Zohar for All, Mishpatim (Ordinances), item 517

The world leaves by judgment because the Creator created only the will to receive, an egoistic desire that wants to satisfy itself and feel good. There is nothing in reality but the desire to bestow, which is the upper force, and the desire to receive, which is the force of the creature. All that exists is the balance between these two forces. We can also see how it unfolds in the order of the worlds, in Yod–Hey–Vav–Hey, how it is rooted and hangs down to this world.

This world, too, is built on four basic principles. If they did not exist it would not be possible to sustain the universe with all its stars, the earth, and life upon it. These four principles exist in atoms, and in the relations between the parts of the atom.

The will to receive is the foundation. When we begin to work with that foundation in order to bestow, we permeate creation. We have never done this because we have always been using only those laws that are in us egoistically.

Until now we have been following the path paved for us by nature. Now, for the first time, once we have come to the wisdom of Kabbalah, we are beginning to seemingly work against our nature. This is why this work is called “My sons defeated Me,”[8] because we are seemingly going against the Creator.

The Creator created the evil inclination and we turn it into a good inclination. We open ourselves up to a completely new reality. Only in this world are we feeling only our nature.

As it is written in The Zohar, the corrections are through the correction of Gevura, which is why we become Gevarim, from the Hebrew word Hitgabrut (to overcome). That is, we rise above our egos and enter the world that is above the ego, the other world—the world of bestowal.

The Book of Zohar is special because of the influence of the light on our correction. Never in history has there been another an event where ten great Kabbalists gathered, each corresponding to a different Sephira at the head of the system of governance. They assembled and wrote the master plan of governance and guidance of the whole of reality first-hand. In fact, they were in that source themselves.

Therefore, when reading what they wrote, we draw on ourselves that light so it may sanctify us and bring us to the level of Bina, which is called “holy” or “sanctified,” meaning bestowal—love of others. This is when we receive our best weapon against our egos.

From The Zohar: The Grandfather

Many are the people in the world whose minds are confused and they do not see truthfully in the Torah. Each day, the Torah calls upon them with love for them, yet they do not wish to turn their heads back and listen to her. In the Torah, a thing comes out of its sheath, appears briefly, and promptly hides. When it appears out of the sheath and promptly hides, the Torah does it only for those who know her and are known in her.

… So is a word of Torah: it appears only to the one who loves her. The Torah knows that that wise of heart circles the gate to her house each day. What does she do? She shows her face from within the palace, gives him a hint, and promptly returns to her place and hides. All those from there neither know nor look, but he alone, whose guts and heart, and soul follow her. This is why the Torah appears and covers, and goes to her loved one with love, to awaken the love with him.

Zohar for All, Mishpatim (Ordinances), items 97-99

When we need to reveal, we also need to conceal. And yet, it is particularly when we conceal that we reveal. This is the Torah—the Megila of Esther (the story of Esther). It becomes Meguleh (revealed) particularly in concealment. The more one conceals one’s ego, the more one reveals the place above the ego, where the Creator appears. This is the oppositeness that people do not understand. Our senses cannot perceive it because the technique of concealment and disclosure is built on oppositeness.

What do the commandments that the portion discusses mean?

All commandments are laws pertaining to the soul. Meat and dairy foods correspond to right and left, and observing the Sabbath pertains to the prohibition to touch the last part of the will to receive, which for now remains unattended to because we haven’t the strength for it. Only once we complete all of our corrections and reach the seventh millennium, after six thousand years—the six days of working on our corrections, our will to receive—we will reach the Sabbath, namely rest. On Sabbath we avoid touching desires that pertain to the seventh part.

The portion describes humanity seemingly jumping a degree; what is that jump?

When Moses and the people of Israel approach Mount Sinai, the nature they are in—which they must correct—appears to them. Today that state of required correction is gradually appearing before humanity, and many academic and scientific conferences around the world are discussing the correction that humanity is going through.

Will new laws appear before humanity?

Yes, and people will begin to talk about it. They will understand it and feel it. We are changing each day. A new awareness, new sensation, new perception is coming to the world making people more sensitive. All of a sudden we can perceive that there is another dimension outside of us, that we are living in our egos, inside our will to receive, and that this is where we perceive reality. We feel through our desires. Should they change, we will perceive a different reality, as it is written, “I saw an opposite world.”[9]

What does it mean to see an opposite world?

All the laws of Torah were meant only to explain how to discover laws that are opposite from us, how to move from love of self to love of others. This is the meaning of being opposite.

[1] Babylonian Talmud, Masechet Kidushin, 30b.
[2] Masechet Berachot, 17a.
[3] Midrash Rabah, Devarim, Portion 11, item 11.
[4] RASHI, Exodus, 19b.
[5] Babylonian Talmud, Masechet Avoda Zarah, p 2b.
[6] Masechet Shabbat, 31a.
[7] Jerusalem Talmud, Seder Nashim, Masechet Nedarim, Chapter 9, p 30b.
[8] Babylonian Talmud, Masechet Nezikin, Baba Metzia, 59b
[9] Babylonian Talmud, Masechet Nezikin, Baba Batra, 10b.