The Timeline of Six Seals(33AD-1948AD)

The Revelation 6 the First Six Seals On being opened, the seven-sealed scroll reveals future events


1st seal from 33AD to 313AD:

Next John sees a white horse and the rider has a bow and a crown and it goes forth conquering and to conquer. This is the first period of the church in the world when it went forth conquering and triumphant and the gospel message was carried over all the Roman empire until Christianity conquered the empire.

The white horse is a symbol of Rome under the pace of Constantine he is the rider on the horse a rider of a horse is use for rulers of nations Zechariah 10:5 and here denotes those who guide the destiny of Rome.

The rider on the horse is The Bishop of Rome, the embryo Pope, 6. The Man of Sin

The bow was arrowless now the bow is used for the word of god Zechariah 9:13,14 and Psalms 64:3 and symbolis the influence of Christianity conquering by the power of the word. The Constantine in the year 313 issused a decree giving toleration to Christianity and shortly afterwards he declared himself a Christian. Thus after two and a half centuries of bitter persecution the church had triumphed and the cross replaced the eagle on the standards of Rome.

2nd seal:the period is from around 313 to 800AD

John sees a red horse and power was given to the rider to take peace away from the earth. Soon after the Roman Empire officially accepted Christianity it began to fall into decay. corruption within, civil war and the barbarian tribes without gradually weakened the empire

The rider of the red horse which moved in from the west carried a great dagger, and was commanded to take peace from the earth, to cause men to slay one another. This is a clear an indication as one could want that civil war was to be God’s next judgement

The legions were withdrawn from the outlying provinces as Rome weakened Europe fell into chaos. The Church moved into the power vacuum trying to manipulate the various rulers. The peace was indeed taken away from the earth. The period continues to about the 8th century when Europe began to be dominated by the franks through whom the church began to wield power. In 800AD Charlemagne was crowned emperor of the holy Roman empire

3rd seal:the period is from around 800 to 1200AD

Famines in the period 927–928 Caused by four months of frost Byzantine Empire

1005 England

1016 Famine throughout Europe

4th seal:the period is from around 1200AD to 1500AD

The opening of this seal represents a truly terrible period. As in the letters to the churches of about this period the direction of the vision is changed from the professing christian church to the faithful few. One of the results of the assumption of power by the Roman Church was the denial of freedom of individual thought and the instrument designed to enforce this was the inquisition. 

During this same period there were endless wars in Europe as rival claims to thrones tried to establish themselves plague and pestilence followed in the wake of the wars it is estimated that the black death took about a quarter of the population of Europe.

5th seal:this period is from around 1500 to 1799

This period is parallel to the letter to philadelphia John sees the souls of those who had already been martyred in the preceding periods and they wanted to know how long it would be before God would come and judge the persecutors. they were told to wait a little longer until the number would be complete.

This is period of time of following the reformation when man’s consciousness arose against the wickedness of the Roman Church.

6th seal:the period is from around 1799 to 1948

“Earthquake” the French revolution

And the sun became black as sackcloth of hair dissolved on 6 August 1806, when the last Holy Roman Emperor Francis II (from 1804, Emperor Francis I of Austria) abdicated, following a military defeat by the French under Napoleon

And the stars of heaven [the Roman Church] fell unto the earth is Symbolically, the stars of the papal heavens (the pope) fell to the earth when Napoleon fined the Pope ten million dollars, organized the Papal territory into a republic and took the Pope prisoner

The fallen starts was the church in the French Revolution (1789). Sword. Two world wars and the threat of global annihilation by nuclear and biological weapons.

Even as a fig tree

The fig tree in this prophecy may be understood to signify the Jewish nation. (Matt. 24:32.) If so, it is being fulfilled; the Zionist movement, started in 1897, since that time Jewish nation was born in 1948 these buds have thrive.

CASTING her untimely figs, when she is shaken of a mighty wind. — threw off its immature show of character], it shall also throw off its immature show of character when surrounded in the very end by “Gog”when she is shaken of a mighty wind [surrounded by the armies of Gog.

The Unexplained Mystery of Change in European DNA

Something very strange and unexplained happened with Europeans DNA 4,000-5,000 years ago. 

For reasons totally unknown, the genetic markers of this first pan-European culture, were suddenly replaced around 4500 years ago. Scientists don’t know why…

Ancient DNA recovered from a series of skeletons in central Germany up to 7500 years old has been used to reconstruct the first detailed genetic history of modern Europe.

A study (Neolithic Mitochondrial Haplogroup H Genomes and the Genetic Origins of Europeans) conducted by an international team of researchers at the University of Adelaide’s Australian Centre for Ancient DNA (ACAD), and their colleagues from the University of Mainz, Germany and the National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project, reveals a dramatic series of events including major migrations from both Western Europe and Eurasia, and signs of an unexplained genetic turnover about 4000-5000 years ago.

The research was performed at the University of Adelaide’s Australian Centre for Ancient DNA (ACAD).

Researchers used DNA extracted from bone and teeth samples from prehistoric human skeletons to sequence a group of maternal genetic lineages that are now carried by up to 45% of Europeans.


People of the Beaker culture

“This is the first high-resolution genetic record of these lineages through time, and it is fascinating that we can directly observe both human DNA evolving in ‘real-time’, and the dramatic population changes that have taken place in Europe,” says joint lead author Dr Wolfgang Haak of ACAD.

“We can follow over 4000 years of prehistory, from the earliest farmers through the early Bronze Age to modern times.”

“The record of this maternally inherited genetic group, called Haplogroup H, shows that the first farmers in Central Europe resulted from a wholesale cultural and genetic input via migration, beginning in Turkey and the Near East where farming originated and arriving in Germany around 7500 years ago,” says joint lead author Dr Paul Brotherton, formerly at ACAD and now at the University of Huddersfield, UK.


Mid-Neolithic Europe

 “What is intriguing is that the genetic markers of this first pan-European culture, which was clearly very successful, were then suddenly replaced around 4500 years ago, and we don’t know why.

Something major happened, and the hunt is now on to find out what that was,” ACAD Director Professor Alan Cooper said.

 “We have established that the genetic foundations for modern Europe were only established in the Mid-Neolithic, after this major genetic transition around 4000 years ago,” says Dr Haak.


What Caused The Unexplained Change

In Europeans’ DNA 4000-5000 Years Ago?

Scientists Say The Genetic Turnover Remains A Mystery

“This genetic diversity was then modified further by a series of incoming and expanding cultures from Iberia and Eastern Europe through the Late Neolithic.”

“The expansion of the Bell Beaker culture (named after their pots) appears to have been a key event, emerging in Iberia around 2800 BC and arriving in Germany several centuries later,” says Dr Brotherton.

“This is a very interesting group as they have been linked to the expansion of Celtic languages along the Atlantic coast and into central Europe.”

“These well-dated ancient genetic sequences provide a unique opportunity to investigate the demographic history of Europe,” says Professor Cooper.

“We can not only estimate population sizes but also accurately determine the evolutionary rate of the sequences, providing a far more accurate timescale of significant events in recent human evolution.”

My Personal Worldwide Predictions For 2017-2018


Hillary Clinton will resign from politics because of the release of documents that reveal financial corruption and falsification of government documents.

“It could happen in 2017. My feeling is volcanic problems around Italy, around the area of Vesuvius and maybe the Island of Ischia and Naples itself. There’s problems there.”

Denmark and Italy pull out of EU as Euro crashes. 2017 sees Italy in serious economic problems.

Economic chaos in Europe (and America for a short while) with riots in many European capital and big cities (Rome, Madrid, Berlin, Paris and Prague). 

In these places many people are suffering serious poverty and food shortages due to the failure of the EU.

Just want to clarify that although I see these world economic problems with lots of steep falls, America and the UK will bounce back quickly and prosper. 

Famous building in flames as right-wing riots in Germany spark memories of the burning of the Reichstag.

 Britain escapes the worst of the international economic troubles and is seen as a safe economic haven. Britain, India and Australia form an economic alliance.

America becomes politically divided between East and West. Riots and gun fights in America over election results and turmoil throughout 2017. Friendly, neutral troops from Canada are called in to quell unrest.

USA experiences a serious drought during the summer of 2017 while Europe has floods.

Large fire at the UK Houses of Parliament

New War spills into Afghanistan as revolution erupts in Uzbekistan

Ancient Giant Squid makes the news – found frozen in ice.

Volcanic eruption in Iceland causes toxic gas cloud over Norway

Conflicts between China and USA as satellite computers are hacked.

Japan initiates an arms race in the Far East after provocation from China and North Korea.

Kim Jong-un will be fall from power later in the year – maybe December 2017 or January 2018

Serious threat of escalating conflict between China and India over northern border of Kashmir.

Sample of Shakespeare’s bones exhumed and show that he was poisoned. Clues to a new play found in his grave.

Terrorists make toxic or biological attack on school in Europe.

Alliance between Russia and USA partitions Syria. Syria is left like a wasteland.

August 21, 2017 eclipse over America coincides with huge stock market fall and long-term inflation.

December 2017 – possibly into mid 2018 – there will be a world-wide flu like epidemic from a strange disease that attacks the immune system and will kill many in the third world.

Assassination and kidnap attempt on the pope at the Vatican. Swiss guards killed.

2017 sees the launch of new virtual reality games and cinema. This is hailed as a great cultural leap forward and takes off on a massive scale in the coming years.

Its downside is that, just like immersive video games, it saps the inspiration from people and further enslaves the mind to materialism.

Other Long Term Predictions for the world:

Many of the above predictions are pretty gloomy but I feel that there will be a simultaneous growth in spirituality for the people of the world that will now start to lead us into a Golden Age.

Conflict and hardship plus growing environmental problems will bring good people together and ignite a desire to seek the true purpose of human life.

I feel that 2017 and 2018 are the years when miraculous spiritual things will be revealed to the world as it finally breaks the yoke of the Age of Materialism.

At first just a few will witness the revelation of the divine but eventually people will experience the world in a completely new way and directly know higher consciousness.

Many of the traditional religions, that are dependent on blind belief, will fail and more people will seek direct experience of the spiritual realms.

By 2025 millions of people would have forsaken Islam. By this time Christianity too would have undergone a spiritual metamorphosis that will encourage people to seek direct personal experience of spirituality through prayer and meditation.

The years ahead will be a tremendous time to be living on earth for I believe that great things are soon to be revealed to the world. By 2050 the world will have entered the Golden Age when higher consciousness and miraculous living are possible.

The time will come when all people will come to realize that our personal future and the collective future of the world can be changed for the better by our good thoughts and actions.

The Mysterious Force Killing Off Galaxies – Is Earth and the Milky Way Next?

A MYSTERIOUS force is wiping out galaxies across the universe baffling scientists who are desperately trying to figure out what is killing off the stars.
Fresh research by boffins at the International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR) may have finally found the answer to the phenomenon. 

The study of 11,000 galaxies showed their gas – the lifeblood of galaxies – was being stripped away on a massive scale throughout the local universe. 

The process, called ‘ram-pressure stripping’, means galaxies cannot form new stars, sending them into an early death spiral. 

Elusive dark matter, while invisible, makes up 27 per cent of our universe, with ordinary matter accounting for just five per cent with the remaining 68 per cent consisting of dark energy. 


earth space galaxy death universe GETTY

Galaxies are embedded within dark matter clouds, which are referred to as dark matter halos.

Galaxies are embedded within dark matter clouds, which are referred to as dark matter halos. 

Toby Brown, leader of the study, said: “During their lifetimes, galaxies can inhabit halos of different sizes, ranging from masses typical of our own Milky Way to halos thousands of times more massive.

“As galaxies fall through these larger halos, the superheated intergalactic plasma between them removes their gas in a fast-acting process called ram-pressure stripping.


earth space galaxy death universe GETTY

The study of 11,000 galaxies showed their gas – the lifeblood of galaxies – was being stripped away

“You can think of it like a giant cosmic broom that comes through and physically sweeps the gas from the galaxies.”

The absence of gas means the galaxies cannot form new stars, slowly killing them as their existing stars die off.

Mr Brown continued: “It dictates the life of the galaxy because the existing stars will cool off and grow old.

“If you remove the fuel for star formation then you effectively kill the galaxy and turn it into a dead object.”


earth space galaxy death universe GETTY

The process, called ‘ram-pressure stripping’, means galaxies cannot form new stars.

The main process which stars run out of gas is called strangulation, but Mr Brown noted the key differences between then and ram-pressure stripping. 

He said: “Strangulation occurs when the gas is consumed to make stars faster than it’s being replenished, so the galaxy starves to death.


 earth space galaxy death universe GETTY

Elusive dark matter, while invisible, makes up 27 per cent of our universe

“It’s a slow-acting process. On the contrary, what ram-pressure stripping does is bop the galaxy on the head and remove its gas very quickly – of the order of tens of millions of years – and astronomically speaking that’s very fast.”

Published in the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, co-author Dr Barbara Catinella said the team combined the largest optical galaxy surgery and the largest set of radio observations for atomic gas in galaxies to discover what was killing off the galaxies.

We need to do more to tackle sexual abuse among Jehovah’s Witnesses

Credits to:thetimes.co.uk

Evidence points towards a sexual abuse scandal in the Jehovah’s Witnesses organisation on a scale which may be comparable to the Catholic Church, Savile or the Football Association, yet they refuse properly to acknowledge it or make effective changes to their safeguarding policies.

This is not a new issue. In 2002, the BBC Panorama programme Suffer the little children focused on allegations of sexual abuse in the Jehovah’s Witnesses. Former members of the religion claimed that the organisation maintained a database of alleged paedophiles, ie a list of names against whom complaints of sexual abuse had been made. Survivors from the US and UK were interviewed. Their stories were tragic in the way that all such stories are. But the details about how the organisation is alleged to have dealt with their claims were particularly disturbing. After summoning the courage to report the abuse to the leaders of their congregations, they claim they were only asked if there was a second witness to the abuse, and it appears none of their complaints were reported to the police by the organisation.

Members are encouraged to avoid contact with secular authorities, including the police and legal system

Little has changed since 2002. The Jehovah’s Witnesses continue to operate what is commonly referred to as the two-witness rule: for any sin committed, there must be two witnesses to the sin in order for the elders to take the matter forward and discipline the member. It matters not that the member has admitted to the same type of wrongdoing in the past. These general policies are outlined in the organisation’s in-house manual Shepherd the Flock of God. In cases of sexual abuse, there is seldom, if ever, a witness. For survivors of sexual abuse who finally find the courage to come forward, in my experience as a solicitor acting on behalf of claimants in sexual abuse cases, the application of these policies means that their complaints are usually dismissed unless the perpetrator admits the abuse, which is rare.

The most recent child safeguarding policy of the organisation directs elders to contact headquarters about allegations of abuse, rather than informing the police. Members are encouraged to avoid contact with secular authorities, including the police and legal system. In most cases they are prohibited from taking a fellow Jehovah’s Witness to court, as to do so could lead to their expulsion from the religion, known as disfellowshipping. A disfellowshipped person is shunned entirely, including by immediate family members, even if living in the same household. Those who smoke, play the lottery, or report abuse may therefore effectively face the same fate — a chillingly powerful and effective deterrent against disclosure.

A worldwide religious organisation that seems to refuse to recognise how its policies protect alleged abusers and put children at risk is frustrating, but not hopeless. Steps can be taken to force the organisation to protect vulnerable members. First, the independent inquiry into child sexual abuse should investigate the Jehovah’s Witnesses, as its Australian counterpart, the royal commission into institutional responses to child sexual abuse, has already done. In its report last year the royal commission said: “We do not consider the Jehovah’s Witness organisation to be an organisation which responds adequately to child sexual abuse.”

It also found that “[T]he organisation’s retention and continued application of policies such as the two witness rule in cases of child sexual abuse shows a serious lack of understanding of the nature of child sexual abuse.” Second, mandatory reporting proposals should be expanded to include all voluntary and religious organisations. The Charity Commission is also currently investigating safeguarding at the religion’s main UK charity.

The Jehovah’s Witnesses will not be the first or the last organisation which appears to turn a blind eye to the child abuse scandal in its ranks, but by drawing the government’s attention to the problem and requiring all organisations, voluntary and religious, to report allegations of abuse, we can make progress toward safeguarding children.

A spokesman for the Jehovah’s Witness has previously said: “Anyone who commits the sin of child abuse faces expulsion from the congregation . . . Any suggestion that Jehovah’s Witnesses cover up child abuse is absolutely false. Congregation elders do not discourage [reports to the authorities] or shield abusers from the authorities or from the consequences of their actions.” The Jehovah’s Witnesses have also previously said in a statement: “Jehovah’s Witnesses abhor child abuse, a crime that sadly occurs in all sectors of society . . . We are committed to doing all we can to prevent child abuse and to provide spiritual comfort to any who have suffered from this terrible sin and crime.”
Kathleen Hallisey is a senior solicitor at Bolt Burdon Kemp, specialising in child abuse. She acted on behalf of the claimant in the landmark case of A v Watchtower [2015] EWHC 1722 (QB), the first judgment against the Jehovah’s Witnesses in the UK for historical sexual abuse.

Jehovah’s Witnesses Charity In United Kingdom Drops Attempts To Block Abuse Inquiry

Credits to theguardian.com
Watch Tower’s legal challenges have held up UK investigation into alleged sexual abuse for more than two years

 The charity commission is investigating claims that Jehovah’s Witnesses abuse survivors were forced to face their attackers.

The UK’s main Jehovah’s Witnesses charity has dropped efforts to block an investigation into how it handled allegations of sexual abuse, including of children, after a legal fight lasting more than two years.

The Charity Commission launched an inquiry into safeguarding at the religion’s main UK charity in May 2014 after receiving allegations that survivors of rape and sexual abuse, including people abused as children, were forced to face their attackers in “judicial committees”.

The Jehovah’s Witnesses, however, resisted the investigation into the Watch Tower Bible Tract Society of Great Britain (WTBTS), which oversees the UK’s 1,500 congregations and is believed to play a key role in deciding how claims of abuse are handled.

The WTBTS, which had a turnover of more than £80m last year, launched a series of legal challenges to the inquiry. These included an attempt to challenge in the supreme court the commission’s decision to start an investigation. The charity also fought in the lower courts against production orders that would oblige it to give the commission access to records showing how it handled the allegations.

The commission announced last week that, more than two and a half years after the investigation was launched, the WTBTS had shared some of the documents it had been seeking and the commission had since cancelled the production order. The charity had also dropped the last of its legal cases against the inquiry, the supreme court having refused to hear that particular case in July.

Although charities do sometimes challenge the commission’s decisions in court, the extent and length of the Jehovah’s Witnesses litigation were unprecedented in recent times, a commission spokesman told the Guardian last year.

A spokesman for the WTBTS said: “In light of the progress of the inquiry and the information obtained by the commission from Watch Tower and other sources, the commission has agreed to revoke the production order. Watch Tower has therefore agreed to withdraw its application for judicial review of the production order and a consent order has been filed with the high court to conclude the proceedings.

“Watch Tower will now work with the commission to explore the issues that are the subject of the statutory inquiry and to address the commission’s regulatory concerns.”

The commission is conducting a separate investigation into the Manchester New Moston congregation, where three adult survivors of child sex abuse were allegedly brought face-to-face with their abuser shortly after he was released from prison after being jailed for attacking them.

He was later “disfellowshipped”, or expelled, from the church. But two women in separate cases told the Guardian last year that although the church can disfellowship people from the tight-knit congregations for minor offences, such as gambling, their abusers had been allowed to remain in the church. One, who was raped as an adult, said she had been urged by senior congregation members, known as elders, to face her rapist at a private hearing, leaving her “completely traumatised” and leading to the breakup of her marriage.

A spokesman for the Jehovah’s Witnesses said last year: “We are in no position to, and neither would we wish to, force any victim of abuse to confront their attacker.”

Thomas Beale, of AO Advocates, who last year won a civil case that found the Jehovah’s Witnesses had failed to protect a woman from sexual abuse that began when she was four, said the commission’s decision to drop its production order could allow the charity to withhold further information.

“Of course we welcome the ongoing statutory inquiry into Jehovah’s Witnesses’ safeguarding policies and look forward to reviewing its findings,” he said. 

“However, given our experience with Jehovah’s Witnesses in litigation, we struggle to see how a thorough and robust investigation can occur now that the Charity Commission has decided to revoke its production order. We think the chance of full disclosure now by the Jehovah’s Witnesses is very small.”

The organisation has faced similar claims overseas. Last year an inquiry in Australia found the organisation failed to protect children from sexual abuse, and that its weak internal procedures left abusers at large. Similar claims have emerged in Canada.

A spokesman for the Jehovah’s Witnesses told the Guardian last year: “Congregation elders do not discourage [reports to the authorities] or shield abusers from the authorities or from the consequences of their actions.”

Fay Maxted, the chief executive of the Survivors Trust, said the WTBTS should apologise to those affected for the “appalling delays” caused by its litigation.

“Faith groups need to really take on board the huge damage and pain caused to victims and survivors when appeal after appeal is pursued in an attempt to prevent them from having to share information,” she said. “It is very difficult in such circumstances to believe that the best interests of the victim or survivor are in any way being considered.”

Maxted said she hoped the decision to share information with the commission signalled a change in their approach to the needs of victims and survivors.

How View Jews and Judaism Yeshua(Jesus)

What Do Jews Believe About Jesus?How Judaism regards the man Christians revere as the messiah.

Jesus is the central figure of Christianity, believed by Christians to be the messiah, the son of God and the second person in the Trinity.

But what do Jews believe about Jesus? For some Jews, the name alone is nearly synonymous with pogroms and Crusades, charges of deicide and centuries of Christian anti-Semitism. Other Jews, recently, have come to regard him as a Jewish teacher. This does not mean, however, that they believe, as Christians do, that he was raised from the dead or was the messiah.


A 13th-century mosaic of Jesus found in the church of Hagia Sophia in Istanbul, Turkey. (iStock)

While many now regard Jesus as the founder of Christianity, he did not intend to establish a new religion, at least according to the earliest sources, and he never used the term “Christian.” He was born and lived as a Jew, and his earliest followers were Jews as well. Christianity emerged as a separate religion only in the centuries after Jesus’ death.

Who Was Jesus?

Virtually all of what is known about the historical Jesus comes from the four New Testament Gospels — Matthew, Mark, Luke and John — which scholars believe were written several decades after Jesus’ death.

While there is no archaeological or other physical evidence for his existence, most scholars agree that Jesus did exist and that he was born sometime in the decade before the Common Era and crucified sometime between 26-36 CE (the years when the Roman governor, Pontius Pilate, ruled Judea).

He lived at a time when the Roman Empire ruled what is now Israel and sectarianism was rife, with major tensions among Jews not only over how much to cooperate with the Romans but also how to interpret Torah. It was also, for some, a restive time when displeasure with Roman policies, as well as with the Temple high priests, bred hopes for a messianic redeemer who would throw off the foreign occupiers and restore Jewish sovereignty in the Land of Israel.


Illustration depicting Jesus, with apostles fishing in the Sea of Galilee. (From “At Home’ by Grace Stebbing, published by John F Shaw & Co)

Was Jesus the Messiah?

The question “was Jesus the messiah?” requires a prior question: “What is the definition of messiah?” The Prophets (Nevi’im), who wrote hundreds of years before Jesus’ birth, envisioned a messianic age as as a period of universal peace, in which war and hunger are eradicated, and humanity accepts God’s sovereignty. By the first century, the view developed that the messianic age would witness a general resurrection of the dead, the in-gathering of all the Jews, including the 10 lost tribes, to the land of Israel, a final judgment and universal peace.

Some Jews expected the messiah to be a descendant of King David (based on an interpretation of God’s promise to David in 2 Samuel 7 of an eternal kingdom). The Dead Sea Scrolls speak of two messiahs: one a military leader and the other a priest. Still other Jews expected the prophet Elijah, or the angel Michael, or Enoch, or any number of other figures to usher in the messianic age.

Stories in the Gospels about Jesus healing the sick, raising the dead, and proclaiming the imminence of the kingdom of heaven suggest that his followers regarded him as appointed by God to bring about the messianic age.

More than 1,000 years after Jesus’ crucifixion, the medieval sage Maimonides (also known as Rambam) laid out in his Mishneh Torah specific things Jews believe the messiah must accomplish in order to confirm his identity — among them restoring the kingdom of David to its former glory, achieving victory in battle against Israel’s enemies, rebuilding the temple (which the Romans destroyed in 70 CE) and ingathering the exiles to the land of Israel. “And if he’s not successful with this, or if he is killed, it’s known that he is not the one that was promised by the Torah,” Maimonides wrote.

What About Jews for Jesus? Do They Believe Jesus is the Messiah?

Jews for Jesus is one branch of a wider movement called Messianic Jews. Members of this movement are not accepted as Jewish by the broader Jewish community, even though some adherents may have been born Jewish and their ritual life includes Jewish practices. While an individual Jew could accept Jesus as the messiah and technically remain Jewish — rejection of any core Jewish belief or practice does not negate one’s Jewishness — the beliefs of messianic Jews are theologically incompatible with Judaism.

Did the Jews Kill Jesus?

No. Jesus was executed by the Romans. Crucifixion was a Roman form of execution, not a Jewish one.

For most of Christian history, Jews were held responsible for the death of Jesus. This is because the New Testament tends to place the blame specifically on the Temple leadership and more generally on Jewish people. According to the Gospels, the Roman governor Pontius Pilate was reluctant to execute Jesus but was egged on by bloodthirsty Jews — a scene famously captured in Mel Gibson’s controversial 2004 film “The Passion of the Christ.” According to the Gospel of Matthew, after Pilate washes his hands and declares himself innocent of Jesus’ death, “all the people” (i.e., all the Jews in Jerusalem) respond, “His blood be on us and on our children” (Matthew 27:25).

This “blood cry” and other verses were used to justify centuries of Christian prejudice against Jews. In 1965, the Vatican promulgated a document called “Nostra Aetate” (Latin for “In Our Time”) which stated that Jews in general should not be held responsible for the death of Jesus. This text paved the way for a historic rapprochement between Jews and Catholics. Several Protestant denominations across the globe subsequently adopted similar statements.


A mosaic in Jerusalem’s Evangelical Lutheran Church of Ascension depicting Jesus’ crucifixion. (iStock)

Why Was Jesus Killed?

Some have suggested that Jesus was a political rebel who sought the restoration of Jewish sovereignty and was executed by the Romans for sedition — an argument put forth in two recent works: Reza Aslan’s Zealot and Shmuley Boteach’s Kosher Jesus. However, this thesis is not widely accepted by New Testament scholars. Had Rome regarded Jesus as the leader of a band of revolutionaries, it would have rounded up his followers as well. Nor is there any evidence in the New Testament to suggest that Jesus and his followers were zealots interested in an armed rebellion against Rome. More likely is the hypothesis that Romans viewed Jesus as a threat to the peace and killed him because he was gaining adherents who saw him as a messianic figure.

Did Jesus Reject Judaism?

Some have interpreted certain verses in the Gospels as rejections of Jewish belief and practice. In the Gospel of Mark, for example, Jesus is said to have declared forbidden foods “clean” — a verse commonly understood as a rejection of kosher dietary laws — but this is Mark’s extrapolation and not necessarily Jesus’ intention. Jesus and his earliest Jewish followers continued to follow Jewish law.

The New Testament also include numerous verses testifying to Jesus as equal to God and as divine — a belief hard to reconcile with Judaism’s insistence on God’s oneness. However, some Jews at the time found the idea that the divine could take on human form compatible with their tradition. Others might have regarded Jesus as an angel, such as the “Angel of the Lord” who appears in Genesis 16, Genesis 22, Exodus 3 (in the burning bush) and elsewhere.

Are There Jewish Texts that Reference Jesus?

Yes. The first-century Jewish historian Josephus mentions Jesus, although the major reference in his Antiquities of the Jews appears to have been edited and augmented by Christian scribes. There are a few references in the Talmud to “Yeshu,” which many authorities understand as referring to Jesus.

The Talmud tractate Sanhedrin originally recorded that Yeshu the Nazarene was hung on the eve of Passover for the crime of leading Jews astray. This reference was excised from later versions of the Talmud, most likely because of its use by Christians as a pretext for persecution.

In the medieval period, a work called Toledot Yeshu presented an alternative history of Jesus that rejects cardinal Christian beliefs. The work, which is not part of the canon of rabbinic literature, is not widely known.

Maimonides, in his Mishneh Torah, describes Jesus as the failed messiah foreseen by the prophet Daniel. Rather than redeeming Israel, Maimonides writes, Jesus caused Jews to be killed and exiled, changed the Torah and led the world to worship a false God.